Peacekeeping

Thousands Trained but United States Is Unlikely to Complete All Activities by 2010 and Some Improvements Are Needed Gao ID: GAO-08-754 June 26, 2008

In 2004, in response to the Group of Eight (G8) Sea Island Summit, the United States established the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), a 5-year program to build peacekeeping capabilities worldwide, with a focus on Africa. Since 2005, the Department of State (State) has allocated $374 million and selected 52 countries to participate in the program. Congress mandated that GAO assess and report on the initiative. This report assesses (1) progress made in meeting GPOI goals, (2) whether State is consistently assessing the quality and effectiveness of the training, and (3) the extent to which countries meet program criteria and whether trainees are adequately screened for human rights abuses. GAO assessed State and Department of Defense (DOD) data and program documents, interviewed U.S. and host country officials, and conducted field work in eight countries.

State and DOD have made some progress in achieving GPOI objectives in three principal areas: training and equipping peacekeepers, providing equipment and transportation for peacekeeping missions, and building peacekeeping skills and infrastructure, but challenges remain in meeting these goals. First, nearly 40,000 military peacekeepers have been trained and some training equipment has been provided. However, State is unlikely to meet the goal of training 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010 and has encountered problems in accounting for the delivery of training equipment to countries. Second, State supports an equipment depot in Africa and has supplied equipment for missions in Haiti, Lebanon, Somalia, and Sudan, but has been delayed in providing some equipment in support of these missions. Third, State and DOD have trained 2,700 military peacekeeping instructors, conducted several multinational peacekeeping exercises, and refurbished some training centers. However, State has targeted a smaller share of resources to build peacekeeping skills and infrastructure than for training and equipping peacekeepers in Africa in comparison to other regions, in part due to needs and capabilities of the region and a focus on training African peacekeepers for current missions. Of the $98 million State has spent in Africa, 12 percent was spent on building skills and infrastructure needed for long-term peacekeeping capabilities, compared to 20 percent to 51 percent in other regions. While 56 percent of trained military peacekeepers--primarily from Africa--have deployed to peacekeeping missions, State faces challenges in assessing the proficiency of trained peacekeepers against standard skills taught in training and accounting for the activities of trained instructors. Although GPOI training standards follow U.S. military doctrine and United Nations requirements, State does not have a program-wide standard to assess the proficiency of military peacekeepers in skills taught. Further, State is unable to fully account for the training activities of the trained instructors. Collectively, these program limitations result in State's inability to assess the overall outcomes of its program in providing high-quality, effective training. State, in consultation with DOD, has selected 52 partner countries that generally meet program criteria, but in some cases State did not screen trainees for human rights abuses. For 24 countries, State's human rights reporting identified documented human rights violations by security forces in 2007, and GAO found that peacekeepers were not always screened or were not properly screened for human rights abuses. For example, we found that 81 individuals from one country received military training but were not screened for human rights violations.

Recommendations

Our recommendations from this work are listed below with a Contact for more information. Status will change from "In process" to "Open," "Closed - implemented," or "Closed - not implemented" based on our follow up work.

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GAO-08-754, Peacekeeping: Thousands Trained but United States Is Unlikely to Complete All Activities by 2010 and Some Improvements Are Needed This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-08-754 entitled 'Peacekeeping: Thousands Trained but United States Is Unlikely to Complete All Activities by 2010 and Some Improvements Are Needed' which was released on June 26, 2008. This text file was formatted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) to be accessible to users with visual impairments, as part of a longer term project to improve GAO products' accessibility. Every attempt has been made to maintain the structural and data integrity of the original printed product. Accessibility features, such as text descriptions of tables, consecutively numbered footnotes placed at the end of the file, and the text of agency comment letters, are provided but may not exactly duplicate the presentation or format of the printed version. The portable document format (PDF) file is an exact electronic replica of the printed version. We welcome your feedback. Please E-mail your comments regarding the contents or accessibility features of this document to Webmaster@gao.gov. This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further permission from GAO. Because this work may contain copyrighted images or other material, permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately. Report to Congressional Committees: United States Government Accountability Office: GAO: June 2008: Peacekeeping: Thousands Trained but United States Is Unlikely to Complete All Activities by 2010 and Some Improvements Are Needed: GAO-08-754: GAO Highlights: Highlights of GAO-08-754, a report to congressional committees. Why GAO Did This Study: In 2004, in response to the Group of Eight (G8) Sea Island Summit, the United States established the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), a 5-year program to build peacekeeping capabilities worldwide, with a focus on Africa. Since 2005, the Department of State (State) has allocated $374 million and selected 52 countries to participate in the program. Congress mandated that GAO assess and report on the initiative. This report assesses (1) progress made in meeting GPOI goals, (2) whether State is consistently assessing the quality and effectiveness of the training, and (3) the extent to which countries meet program criteria and whether trainees are adequately screened for human rights abuses. GAO assessed State and Department of Defense (DOD) data and program documents, interviewed U.S. and host country officials, and conducted field work in eight countries. What GAO Found: State and DOD have made some progress in achieving GPOI objectives in three principal areas: training and equipping peacekeepers, providing equipment and transportation for peacekeeping missions, and building peacekeeping skills and infrastructure, but challenges remain in meeting these goals. First, nearly 40,000 military peacekeepers have been trained and some training equipment has been provided. However, State is unlikely to meet the goal of training 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010 and has encountered problems in accounting for the delivery of training equipment to countries. Second, State supports an equipment depot in Africa and has supplied equipment for missions in Haiti, Lebanon, Somalia, and Sudan, but has been delayed in providing some equipment in support of these missions. Third, State and DOD have trained 2,700 military peacekeeping instructors, conducted several multinational peacekeeping exercises, and refurbished some training centers. However, State has targeted a smaller share of resources to build peacekeeping skills and infrastructure than for training and equipping peacekeepers in Africa in comparison to other regions, in part due to needs and capabilities of the region and a focus on training African peacekeepers for current missions. Of the $98 million State has spent in Africa, 12 percent was spent on building skills and infrastructure needed for long-term peacekeeping capabilities, compared to 20 percent to 51 percent in other regions. While 56 percent of trained military peacekeepers”primarily from Africa”have deployed to peacekeeping missions, State faces challenges in assessing the proficiency of trained peacekeepers against standard skills taught in training and accounting for the activities of trained instructors. Although GPOI training standards follow U.S. military doctrine and United Nations requirements, State does not have a program- wide standard to assess the proficiency of military peacekeepers in skills taught. Further, State is unable to fully account for the training activities of the trained instructors. Collectively, these program limitations result in State‘s inability to assess the overall outcomes of its program in providing high-quality, effective training. State, in consultation with DOD, has selected 52 partner countries that generally meet program criteria, but in some cases State did not screen trainees for human rights abuses. For 24 countries, State‘s human rights reporting identified documented human rights violations by security forces in 2007, and GAO found that peacekeepers were not always screened or were not properly screened for human rights abuses. For example, we found that 81 individuals from one country received military training but were not screened for human rights violations. What GAO Recommends: GAO recommends that the Secretary of State improve oversight of equipment delivery, develop methods to assess the overall outcomes of the training program, and ensure that trainees are properly screened for human rights violations, among other things. State and DOD concurred or partially concurred with most of the recommendations, except for developing a method for evaluating the GPOI training program which State said already exists. GAO clarified the recommendation. To view the full product, including the scope and methodology, click on [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-08-754]. For more information, contact Joseph Christoff at (202) 512-8979 or christoffj@gao.gov. [End of section] Contents: Letter: Results in Brief: Background: GPOI Has Made Progress in Meeting Program Goals, but Challenges Remain: More than Half of GPOI-Trained Military Peacekeepers Have Deployed to Missions, but State Cannot Assess the Quality or Effectiveness of Its Training Program: GPOI Partner Countries Generally Meet Program Criteria, but in Some Cases State Did Not Screen Trainees for Potential Violations of Human Rights: Conclusions: Recommendations for Executive Action: Agency Comments and Our Evaluation: Appendix I: Scope and Methodology: Appendix II: GPOI Partner Countries: Appendix III: International Contributions to 2004 G8 Summit Goal and GPOI: Appendix IV: Training and Peacekeeping Deployments of GPOI Partners: Appendix V: Equipment Provided to GPOI Partner Countries: Appendix VI: GPOI Activities to Support Long-term Skills and Infrastructure for Peacekeeping: Appendix VII: Comments from the Department of State: GAO Comments: Appendix VIII: Comments from the Department of Defense: Appendix IX: GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments: Tables: Table 1: Status of Activities for GPOI Goals and Objectives: Table 2: Peacekeeping Tasks Included in GPOI Military Skill Training: Table 3: GPOI Partner Countries 2004 to 2008, as of April 2008: Table 4: Military Peacekeepers Trained by GPOI and Deployed, by Country and Region (as of April 2008): Table 5: Types of Military Peacekeeping Equipment Provided to GPOI Partners: Table 6: Types of Training Equipment Provided for COESPU Training: Table 7: Activities to Build Skills and Infrastructure for Peacekeeping, by Region (as of April 2008): Figures: Figure 1: Map of GPOI Partner Countries: Figure 2: GPOI Expenditures by Region, as of April 2008: Figure 3: Projected and Actual Number of Trained Military Peacekeepers by Fiscal Year, as of April 2008: Figure 4: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Training Military Peacekeepers, by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): Figure 5: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Training Equipment by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): Figure 6: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Deployment Assistance by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): Figure 7: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Building Peacekeeping Skills and Infrastructure, by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): Abbreviations: ACOTA: Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance: AU: African Union: COESPU: Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units: DOD: Department of Defense: ECOWAS: Economic Community for West African States: EIPC: Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities: GCCGPOI: Coordination Committee: GPOI: Global Peace Operations Initiative: G8: Group of Eight: State: Department of State: UN: United Nations: [End of section] United States Government Accountability Office: Washington, DC 20548: June 26, 2008: Congressional Committees: Peace support operations throughout the world have grown from 4 United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in 1988 to 17 in 2008; more than half of these missions began in the last 10 years.[Footnote 1] At the 2004 Group of Eight (G8) Sea Island Summit, the United States and other G8 nations responded to the growing need for well-trained and equipped peacekeepers by committing to expand the global capability for peace support operations--particularly African peacekeeping skills and capabilities.[Footnote 2] In 2004, the United States established the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), a 5-year, $660 million program to build peacekeeping capabilities worldwide, with a focus on enhancing peacekeeping capabilities in Africa. Key goals of the program are to train military peacekeepers and stability police[Footnote 3] for peacekeeping missions, including a target of 75,000 military peacekeepers; provide long-term skills and infrastructure to GPOI partner countries and regional organizations; and provide nonlethal equipment and transportation to support countries' deployment of peacekeepers. Since 2005, the Department of State (State), in consultation with the Department of Defense (DOD), has allocated $374 million to support GPOI objectives.[Footnote 4] In the fiscal year 2008 Defense Authorization Act,[Footnote 5] Congress mandated that GAO assess the initiative and report on a number of issues, including the extent to which GPOI has met its goals, the metrics used to measure progress, the quality of training, GPOI's impact on countries' contributions to peacekeeping, and G8 and other countries' financial and technical assistance to expand global capacity for peace support operations. To address the mandate, this report assesses (1) progress made in meeting GPOI goals, (2) whether State is consistently assessing the quality and effectiveness of the training program, and (3) the extent to which countries meet program criteria and whether trainees are adequately screened for human rights abuses. Appendix III contains data on G8 and other countries' contributions to expanding the global capability for peacekeeping. To complete this review, we assessed State Department data on the number of troops trained, equipment provided, and other indicators. We interviewed officials from State and DOD in Washington, D.C.; officials from U.S. Combatant Commands for the Pacific, Southern Hemisphere, and Africa during visits to Germany and Miami; and U.S. and host country officials during site visits to Guatemala, Italy, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Ethiopia, and Mongolia. We determined that the data provided by State and DOD were sufficiently reliable for the purposes of our review. We conducted this performance audit from August 2007 to June 2008 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence obtained in this review provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. Results in Brief: State and DOD have made some progress in achieving GPOI goals in three principal areas: training and equipping peacekeepers, providing equipment and transportation for deployed missions, and building peacekeeping skills and infrastructure, but challenges remain in meeting these goals.[Footnote 6] First, State and DOD have trained nearly 40,000 military peacekeepers, predominantly in Africa; supported the training of over 1,300 stability police; and provided nonlethal training equipment to some military peacekeepers. However, State is unlikely to meet its goal of training 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010 and has encountered problems with accounting for and timely delivery of nonlethal training equipment to partner countries. Second, State supports an equipment depot in Sierra Leone; has supplied equipment for missions in Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan, and Haiti; and has initiated a process for peacekeeping countries to request donor assistance for transportation and logistics needs.[Footnote 7] However, State has encountered some delays in providing timely delivery of nonlethal equipment to deployed peacekeepers. Third, to build peacekeeping skills and infrastructure,[Footnote 8] State and DOD have trained more than 2,700 military peacekeeping instructors, conducted multinational peacekeeping exercises, refurbished training centers, and taken steps to establish a communications system in West Africa. However, State is unlikely to complete skills and infrastructure activities in Africa by 2010, in part due to African peacekeeping countries' limited resources and capabilities for supporting their own peacekeeping programs. Moreover, State has targeted a smaller share of resources for the development of long-term skills and infrastructure for peacekeeping than for training and equipping peacekeepers in Africa in other regions, in part due to needs and capabilities of the region and a focus on training peacekeepers in this region for current missions. Of the $98 million State has spent in Africa, 12 percent has been spent--compared to 20 percent to 50 percent in other regions--on activities to build the long-term skills and infrastructure that countries need to sustain peacekeeping operations on their own. While 56 percent of GPOI-trained military peacekeepers from 13 countries, primarily in Africa, have deployed to peacekeeping missions, State faces challenges in assessing the proficiency of peacekeepers it has trained and accounting for the activities of trained instructors. Although GPOI training standards follow U.S. military doctrine and UN requirements, State does not have a program-wide standard to assess the proficiency of military peacekeepers in the skills taught. For example, trainers we met with in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Senegal stated that they review participants' performance--of which Ghana and Senegal account for 44 percent of the total deployed GPOI-trained troops--in training exercises and exercise professional judgment to determine participants' ability to perform specific tasks, but they are not required to test the skills of military peacekeepers against a common standard. As a result, State cannot ascertain the proficiency of the military peacekeepers it has trained. State has mechanisms for monitoring and documenting the performance of contractors in Africa, including a program management team to monitor contractor performance in Africa. However, the responsibility for retaining evaluations of contractors' performance is unclear among State officials. Further, although State and DOD have trained more than 2,700 military peacekeeping instructors, State cannot fully account for the training activities of these instructors in their home countries. As of April 2008, State had only been able to identify that training had occurred by GPOI-trained instructors in two countries. In addition, State has supported the training of over 1,300 stability police instructors at Italy's Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU), but cannot identify whether these instructors subsequently conduct training. Collectively, these program limitations result in State's inability to assess the overall outcomes of providing high-quality, effective peacekeeping training. State, in consultation with DOD, has selected 52 partner countries that generally meet program criteria, but in some cases State did not screen trainees from partner countries for potential violations of human rights. Countries and their peacekeeping troops must generally meet a list of criteria identified in the program's strategy before they can receive GPOI-funded training and other assistance. Most partner countries generally met the participation criteria, including having an elected government, an acceptable human rights record, a willingness to participate in peace support operations, and an agreement on the use and security of U.S.-provided goods and services, but we found 24 countries in which State's human rights reporting identified documented human rights violations by security forces in 2007. We found that peacekeepers were not always screened or were not properly screened for human rights abuses, in accordance with State guidance. Specifically, we found that State trained 81 individuals in 2007 from one country but did not screen them before they participated in GPOI-funded training. In addition, 17 military peacekeepers and stability police from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Sri Lanka were not vetted out of 382 trained from those countries in 2007. We also found that the commanders of seven composite units in three countries were screened for human rights violations, but the individual members of these units were not screened, as required by State guidance. As a result, it is possible that State and DOD have provided training to security personnel who have committed human rights abuses. We recommend that the Secretary of State improve oversight of nonlethal equipment delivery to partner countries, develop methods to assess the overall outcomes of the training program, and ensure that trainees are properly screened for human rights violations. We also recommend that the Secretary of State, in consultation with DOD, assess the estimated resources and time frames needed to complete activities to help achieve the G8 goals for developing African countries' capabilities to maintain peacekeeping operations on their own. We provided a draft of this report to the Departments of State and Defense. We received written comments from State and DOD, which we have reprinted in appendixes VII and VIII, respectively. State concurred or partially concurred with seven of the eight recommendations and provided additional information to highlight the program's achievements. State did not concur with the recommendation to develop a method for evaluating GPOI training. State noted that methods already exist to evaluate the quality of the training program and measure proficiency of trainees. We disagree that State's current evaluation methods address our recommendation. State has not developed military task lists and associated training that can be applied at all GPOI training sites; sites currently use varying standards to assess the proficiency of trainees. DOD agreed with the need for greater standardization and more analysis of trainee performance. We modified the recommendation to clarify the need for GPOI-wide standard military tasks and related training that State, in consultation with DOD, should develop in accordance with the commitments made in the GPOI strategy. State also commented that it now projects that GPOI will train 75,000 peacekeepers by July 2010 based on new training rates. We were unable to validate State's new data since as recently as May 2008, program officials indicated that slow expenditure rates would delay State's efforts to reach the 2010 training goal. DOD also concurred or partially concurred with the findings and recommendations of the report. DOD agreed that State should work with DOD and Italy to validate personnel shortfalls at COESPU and fill the identified positions. DOD also stated that an assessment of resources and time frames should apply to all regions engaged by the GPOI program. We did not revise this recommendation because it is intended to address our finding that State is unlikely to complete skills and infrastructure activities in Africa by 2010. State and DOD also provided technical comments, which we incorporated where appropriate. Background: On April 1, 2004, the President approved GPOI, a 5-year program to help address significant gaps in international peace operations, including a shortage of capable peacekeepers, limited national capabilities to train and sustain peacekeeping proficiencies, and a lack of mechanisms to help countries deploy peacekeepers and provide logistics support for them in the field. To support the development of peacekeeping capabilities of GPOI countries, the program incorporates and expands on the pre-existing Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program and the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program.[Footnote 9] GPOI Has Seven Objectives to Improve Peacekeeping Operations Worldwide: In 2004, the United States established GPOI as a $660 million, 5-year program with seven objectives to increase and maintain the capacity, capability, and effectiveness of peace operations worldwide. These objectives are to: * train and, when appropriate, equip 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010; * support efforts at the International Center of Excellence for Stability Police (COESPU) in Italy to increase the capabilities and interoperability of stability police to participate in peace operations; * develop a program to procure and store peace operations equipment to facilitate the equipment's quick mobilization for peace operations; * develop a transportation and logistics support system to deploy and sustain peacekeeping in the field; * enhance the capacity of regional and subregional organizations for peace operations; * provide a worldwide clearinghouse function for GPOI-related activities in Africa and globally; and: * conduct activities that support and assist partners in achieving self- sufficiency and maintaining the proficiencies gained from GPOI. U.S. Agencies and Partner Countries Participate in GPOI: State's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, in coordination with DOD's Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Staff, is responsible for providing policy guidance; allocating resources; and coordinating GPOI programs, events, and activities. All GPOI allocations and program activities must be approved by the GPOI Coordination Committee (GCC), the formal decision-making body co- chaired by State's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Participants of the GCC include the Joint Staff and, as required, other program implementers. GPOI implementers include the U.S. Combatant Commands, State's regional bureaus, the Office of the Secretary of Defense's regional offices, and U.S. diplomatic posts. The regional combatant commands are the lead implementers of GPOI activities throughout the world, with the exception of Africa, where State's Bureau of African Affairs leads implementation of GPOI activities. Within the African Affairs Bureau, ACOTA is the lead implementer for the training and equipment portion of GPOI activities in Africa. State has designated 52 countries as partner countries eligible to receive funding for GPOI activities--38 for military peacekeepers, 3 for stability police, and 11 for both military peacekeepers and stability police, as of April 2008. As figure 1 shows, the majority are located in Africa (22 countries) and the remaining are in Asia, South and Central America, Europe, and the Near East and Central Asia. (See app. II for a list of all GPOI partners.) Figure 1: Map of GPOI Partner Countries: [See PDF for image] This figure is a map of the world with the following depiction indicated for GPOI partner countries: * Military partner; * Stability police partner; * Both military partner and stability police partner. Source: Map Resources (map); GAO analysis of Department of State data. [End of figure] Majority of GPOI Funds Provided for Activities in Africa: State has allocated $374 million, from fiscal year 2005 through fiscal year 2008, for GPOI activities worldwide, of which it has expended about $152 million for activities in four major categories: training, training equipment, deployment assistance, and skills and infrastructure. As displayed in figure 2, the majority--about $98 million--has been spent[Footnote 10] in Africa, followed by about $30 million in Asia and $12 million in South and Central America. In Africa, the majority has been spent on training and training equipment together followed by deployment assistance of equipment and transportation for deployed peacekeeping missions. In Asia, the majority has been spent on skills and infrastructure followed by training. In South and Central America, the majority has been spent on training equipment followed by activities for building skills and infrastructure. (App. II identifies the GPOI partner countries in these geographic regions.) Figure 2: GPOI Expenditures by Region, as of April 2008: [See PDF for image] This figure is a stacked vertical bar graph depicting the following data: Region: Africa; Skills and infrastructure[A] funding: $12.2155 million; Deployment assistance[B] funding: $28.2742 million; Training equipment funding: $19.0079 million; Training funding: $38.8121 million; Total: $98.3097 million. Region: Asia; Skills and infrastructure[A] funding: $15.3522 million; Deployment assistance[B] funding: $2 million; Training equipment funding: $3.76712 million; Training funding: $ 9.22004 million; Total: $30.33344 million. Region: South and Central America; Skills and infrastructure[A] funding: $2.0211 million; Deployment assistance[B] funding: $0.862212 million; Training equipment funding: $8.39237 million; Training funding: $0.263018 million; Total: $ 11.5387 million. Region: Europe; Skills and infrastructure[A] funding: $2.02871 million; Deployment assistance[B] funding: $2.5 million; Training equipment funding: $0 million; Training funding: $4.5 million; Total: $9.02871 million; Region: Near East and Central Asia; Skills and infrastructure[A] funding: 0; Deployment assistance[B] funding: 0; Training equipment funding: 0; Training funding: $2.97781 million; Total: $2.97781 million. Source: GAO analysis of Department of State data. Note: Data for training and equipping in Africa are as of Mar. 15, 2008. [A] Peacekeeping skills and infrastructure include activities to enhance the ability of countries to conduct training for their own peacekeeping mission and improve the capabilities of regional organizations to plan, train for, and execute peacekeeping missions. See app. VI for information on the status of these activities in each region. [B] Deployment assistance includes expenditures on equipment and transportation provided for deployed peacekeeping missions. [End of figure] State and DOD Provide Training Using a Variety of Means: Training of military peacekeepers under GPOI can be provided by contractors, U.S. military active duty personnel, or by trainers from neighboring countries in the region, and is focused on providing battalion-level training for peacekeeping missions. U.S. contractors provide the majority of training in Africa and, when available, U.S. military active duty personnel serve as mentors to African trainees. In Asia, U.S. military personnel provide the majority of training but use contractors to provide some of the training for military officers. In Central America, training is provided by other countries and by U.S. military personnel.[Footnote 11] The United States has funded the training of a few individuals in the Near East and Europe. U.S. military personnel may serve as mentors to trainees in these regions. Training has not yet occurred in Central Asia. GPOI training of stability police is provided at COESPU--Italy's international training center for peace operations located in Vicenza, Italy, where the Italian Carabinieri[Footnote 12] train instructors of stability police units.[Footnote 13] GPOI Has Made Progress in Meeting Program Goals, but Challenges Remain: State and DOD have made some progress in achieving GPOI goals in three principal areas: training and equipping peacekeepers, providing equipment and transportation for deployed missions, and building peacekeeping skills and infrastructure, but challenges remain in meeting these goals. Table 1 summarizes the status of GPOI activities for the three principal goals and seven objectives. First, State and DOD have trained about 40,000 military peacekeepers, predominantly in Africa, and supported the training of over 1,300 stability police, but it is unlikely that GPOI will meet its goal of training 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010 due to the time it takes to expend program funds, and State and DOD have encountered delays in delivering nonlethal training equipment.[Footnote 14] Second, State has provided equipment to deployed missions in Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan, and Haiti; supports an equipment depot in Sierra Leone; and initiated a process for peacekeeping countries to request donor assistance for their transportation and logistics needs, but some efforts have been delayed. Third, State and DOD have trained more than 2,700 military peacekeeping instructors and conducted other activities. However, State faces delays in completing activities to build skills and infrastructure in Africa by 2010. In addition, State has targeted a smaller share of resources to build African peacekeeping skills and infrastructure than to train and equip African peacekeepers, compared to other regions. This is due in part to the needs and capabilities of the region and a focus on training peacekeepers in this region for current missions. The following sections provide more information about the progress made in these areas. Table 1: Status of Activities for GPOI Goals and Objectives: GPOI Goal: Train and equip peacekeepers: Train and equip 75,000 peacekeepers by 2010; Status of Activities: Trained about 40,000, not on track to train 75,000 by 2010. Expect to meet training goal when all training funds are fully expended. Problems with procuring and accounting for training equipment. GPOI Goal: Train and equip peacekeepers: Provide support to Italy's International Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU); Status of Activities: On track to train 3,000 by 2010. Provided personnel for one staff position at COESPU. Additional positions Italy requested the United States to fill remain unfilled. GPOI Goal: Provide equipment and transportation to deployed missions: Develop a deployment equipment program for quick mobilization of equipment to support peacekeeping missions; Status of Activities: Equipment provided to six countries deployed in four peacekeeping missions. Maintain and provide equipment to depot in Sierra Leone. Delivery of some equipment has been slow. GPOI Goal: Provide equipment and transportation to deployed missions: Work with other G8 members to develop a program for peacekeeping countries to request donor assistance for transportation and logistics needs; Status of Activities: In October 2007, established e-mail communication system in cooperation with G8 to facilitate requests for assistance. First request communicated through system in April 2008. GPOI Goal: Build peacekeeping skills and infrastructure: Enhance the capacity of regional and subregional organizations; Status of Activities: In Africa, trained some staff of one regional organization, provided computer equipment to three regional peacekeeping centers, and provided equipment for communication systems. GPOI Goal: Build peacekeeping skills and infrastructure: Conduct activities that support peacekeeping countries' ability to develop and maintain their peacekeeping programs; Status of Activities: Trained 2,700 military peacekeeping instructors, predominantly in Africa, and refurbished some training facilities in Central America and Asia. Limited ability in African countries to build and maintain their own training program. GPOI Goal: Build peacekeeping skills and infrastructure: Create a clearinghouse function; Status of Activities: Supported the establishment of annual conferences held with G8 and other nations to share information and discuss efforts to support peacekeeping in Africa. In 2007, held first conference to discuss worldwide efforts to enhance peacekeeping. Source: GAO analysis of Department of State data. [End of table] Thousands of Military Peacekeepers Trained in Africa, but Challenges Remain in Supporting Stability Police Training and Providing Training Equipment: The majority--92 percent--of military peacekeepers trained under GPOI are from African partner countries, while the remainder have been trained in Asia, Central America, and Europe. In addition, State has supported the training of over 1,300 stability police instructors at COESPU, providing about one-quarter of the school's budget. However, State is not likely to train 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010 and has not provided support for all requested staff positions at COESPU. Further, State has provided about $31 million of training equipment to military peacekeepers in 27 countries, predominantly in Africa. However, State has faced challenges in delivering training equipment to GPOI partner countries in a timely manner and accounting for equipment delivery. GPOI Has Supported Training and Equipping of Military Peacekeepers, but Is Unlikely to Meet Its Goals by 2010: State and DOD have trained about 40,000 military peacekeepers as of April 2008--36,968 in Africa; 1,805 in Asia; 455 in Central and South America; and 289 in Europe (see app. IV for details on the number trained by region and country). State is not likely to complete the training of 75,000 military peacekeepers by the target date of 2010. As figure 3 shows, the actual number of troops trained is lower than State's projections. State expects to reach its goal once it has spent all GPOI training funds, but this will likely not occur until after 2010 due to the time it takes to expend training funds. In commenting on a draft of this report, State asserts that it now expects that GPOI will train 75,000 peacekeepers by July 2010 based on new training rates. We were unable to validate State's new projections since as recently as May 2008, program officials from the GPOI office in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs and its GPOI evaluation team indicated that slow expenditure rates related to training rates would delay their efforts to reach the 2010 training goal. Figure 3: Projected and Actual Number of Trained Military Peacekeepers by Fiscal Year, as of April 2008: [See PDF for image] This figure is a multiple line graph depicting the following data: Fiscal year: 2005; Projected number to be trained: 12,042 Actual number trained: 12,847. Fiscal year: 2005-2006; Projected number to be trained: 31,271; Actual number trained: 25,743. Fiscal year: 2005-2007; Projected number to be trained: 48,449; Actual number trained: 38,314. Fiscal year: 2005-2008; Projected number to be trained: 62,649; Actual number trained: 39,518. Fiscal year: 2005-2009; Projected number to be trained: 75,099; Actual number trained: [Empty]. Source: State Department data. [End of figure] State has spent approximately $56 million to train military peacekeepers, as of April 2008. Figure 4 shows the expenditures of GPOI funds for training military peacekeepers by region. The majority of the funds, about $39 million, have been spent in Africa. Figure 4: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Training Military Peacekeepers, by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): [See PDF for image] This figure is a pie-chart depicting the following data: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Training Military Peacekeepers, by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): Africa: $38,812,079 (69.6%); Asia: $9,220,040 (16.5%); Europe: $4,500,000 (8.1%); Near East and Central Asia: $2,977,807 (5.3%); South and Central America: $263,018 (0.5%). Source: GAO analysis of State Department data. [End of figure] In addition to these funds, some of the combatant commands have spent additional DOD funds to support the State-funded GPOI training. For example, U.S. Pacific Command officials identified that they spent an estimated $8 million of additional DOD funds to develop courses for peacekeeping training and support multinational training exercises held in Mongolia and Bangladesh. COESPU Is Likely to Meet Training Goal for Stability Police by 2010 Despite Shortfalls in State's Assistance: Based on current projections, COESPU has indicated that it is likely to meet its goal of training 3,000 stability police instructors by 2010. As of April 2008, State had expended $9 million of $15 million obligated for COESPU's operations, directly supporting about one- quarter of COESPU's budget.[Footnote 15] In 2005, the Italians requested assistance from the United States in filling six staff positions at COESPU in the areas of management, training, research, and publications. Since 2005, the United States has provided a military officer to serve in the deputy director position, but support has not been provided for the other requested staff positions at COESPU. According to a February 2008 State document and COESPU and U.S. officials we met with in Italy, the United States planned to provide support to fill a total of five staff positions at COESPU: deputy director, head of the training department for high-level courses, manager of research for stability police training doctrine, evaluator of course outcomes, and Web site and magazine manager. In January 2008, COESPU and U.S. officials we met with in Italy stated that these positions would help COESPU track the activities of its graduates, dispatch mobile training teams, and expand the number of students in each class. In May 2008, State officials in Washington, D.C., indicated that they plan to fund the position for an evaluator of course outcomes in the near future. In addition, we found that State does not always use staff at U.S. missions in partner countries to facilitate U.S. support to COESPU. For example, an embassy official in Senegal stated that when COESPU sent a questionnaire to Senegalese officials inquiring about deployments and training activities of COESPU graduates, State did not instruct the embassy to follow up and help obtain a response. State and DOD Have Encountered Problems in Providing and Accounting for Training Equipment: State has provided about $31 million in nonlethal training equipment to military peacekeepers in 27 countries, predominantly in Africa. The equipment provided includes individual and unit equipment for military units training for peacekeeping missions, as well as equipment for COESPU to train stability police instructors. State has encountered delays in the purchase and delivery of this equipment, often resulting in State's inability to provide equipment concurrently with training sessions. Further, State officials have been unable to fully account for training equipment delivered in Africa. The equipment provided includes individual equipment such as boots, first aid kits, and uniforms; and unit equipment such as radios, tents, and toolkits. (See app. V for more information on the types of training equipment provided in each region.) As figure 5 shows, the majority of the equipment was provided to partner countries in Africa. State also has provided individual training equipment directly to COESPU for students attending the school. This equipment included nonlethal items such as riot batons and shields. Figure 5: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Training Equipment by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): [See PDF for image] This figure is a pie-chart depicting the following data: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Training Equipment by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): Africa: $19,007,914 (61%); South and Central America: $8,392,374 (27%); Asia: $3,767,115 (12%). Source: GAO analysis of State Department data. Note: Near East and Central Asia and Europe expended zero funds for training in this time period. [End of figure] In addition, officials from some of the combatant commands stated that they use other sources of funds to provide additional equipment to military peacekeepers. For example, U.S. Central Command officials identified an estimated $14 million in funds from DOD accounts to provide items such as body armor, water purification units, vehicles, and uniform equipment for a peacekeeping brigade in Kazakhstan in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. State and DOD have encountered problems in providing training equipment to partner countries in a timely manner. The procurement of equipment through the Defense Security Cooperation Agency, which is responsible for a large amount of equipment for GPOI, has encountered delays due to the procurement priorities for U.S. military forces, the time needed to identify the specific equipment needs for each country, and manufacturing backlogs. For example, a 2007 State program evaluation found that only two of several hundred training equipment items procured through the Defense Security Cooperation Agency for Central America with fiscal year 2005 funds had arrived in country by the end of 2007, and the delivery dates for the remaining equipment were unknown. Contractors and agency and host country officials in the countries we visited in Africa stated that training equipment often is not concurrently provided with GPOI training, due to the delays in procurement and delivery. In addition, U.S. officials in Guatemala stated they had to delay training when equipment was not delivered in time. State also has encountered problems in accounting for the delivery and transfer of equipment to partner countries. Specifically, State officials in Washington, D.C., have been unable to fully account for training equipment delivered to Africa. State has used a contractor to purchase in total approximately $19 million of equipment for African partner countries but, as of December 2007, could not account for the equipment's delivery. State officials responsible for implementing the program in Africa said that they instituted a new system in mid-2007 to account for the equipment delivered to partner countries. These officials said that the difficulties with accounting for equipment deliveries have been due to the fact that the previous system was poorly organized. In June 2008, these officials stated they had completed an inventory identifying the equipment items ordered and delivered using GPOI funds and were now able to fully account for the entire inventory of equipment purchase. State Has Provided Equipment and Transportation Support to Deployed Missions, but Some Efforts Have Been Delayed: State has provided equipment to deployed missions and recently established a system to facilitate donor assistance for transport and logistic support to peacekeeping countries deploying to missions. However, State has encountered delays in delivering equipment to missions, similar to the delays in delivering equipment for training. State has provided equipment to deployed missions in a number of ways. As figure 6 shows, the majority of this support has been provided to Africa. In Sierra Leone, since 2005, State has spent over $9 million in equipment and operational support, for an equipment depot used for peacekeeping missions and election support by the Economic Community for West African States (ECOWAS).[Footnote 16] As of April 2008, State also had provided $18 million of nonlethal equipment for six countries deploying to missions in Haiti, Lebanon, Somalia, and Sudan. For example, State provided field kitchens, field medical clinics, water purification units, and generators to peacekeepers deploying to Somalia. This equipment helped support the deployment of at least 4,600 peacekeepers, according to State. Figure 6: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Deployment Assistance by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): [See PDF for image] This figure is a pie-chart depicting the following data: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Deployment Assistance by Region: Africa: $28,274,176 (84%); Europe: $2,500,000 (7%); Asia: $2,000,000 (6%); South and Central America: $862,212 (3%). Source: GAO analysis of State Department data. Note: Near East and Central Asia expended zero funding in this time period. [End of figure] Although State's goal is to provide equipment to countries deployed to peacekeeping missions in a timely manner, as of April 2008, $9 million of equipment obligated since 2005 for countries deployed to missions in Somalia and Sudan had not been provided by State. For example, State obligated $9 million in fiscal year 2005 to support Nigeria, Kenya, and the African Union in the peacekeeping mission to Sudan, but this equipment was not provided until 2007, according to State reporting, and $3.6 million remains to be expended. In another example, State documents indicate that $5.6 million in fiscal year 2006 funds obligated for the purchase of equipment to support peacekeepers deployed from Rwanda, Ghana, Burundi, and Nigeria have not yet been expended. To facilitate donor support for transportation and logistical needs of countries deploying peacekeepers, State established an electronic communication system in the fall of 2007. Requests made by countries seeking assistance with transportation and equipment for peacekeeping missions can be sent by e-mail to G8 and other countries that could provide such assistance. As of April 2008, five potential donor G8 countries have designated a contact person to receive such requests, according to State. Although the GPOI strategy committed to initiating the process and establishing an electronic system by 2006, State did not establish the system until 2007. In April 2008, the first request for assistance for one country's deployment to the African Union mission in Somalia was communicated by State to donors through the system, according to State. State Has Targeted a Smaller Share of Resources to Build Peacekeeping Skills and Infrastructure in Africa Compared with Other Regions and Faces Delays in Completing Activities: State and DOD have conducted a number of activities to enhance peacekeeping skills and infrastructure to develop the ability of countries to conduct training for their own peacekeeping missions and to improve the capabilities of regional organizations to plan, train for, and execute peacekeeping missions. Although African partners receive the majority of GPOI funds, State has targeted a smaller share of resources, comparatively, for activities to build peacekeeping skills and infrastructure among Africa peacekeepers, in part due to the needs and capabilities of the region and its focus on training and equipping peacekeepers to serve in current missions. State and DOD Have Conducted Activities to Build Skills and Infrastructure for Peacekeeping: State and DOD have conducted a range of activities to build peacekeeping skills and infrastructure among partner countries. (See app. VI for information on the status of these activities in each region.) These activities include the following: * Enhancing the ability of countries to conduct their own peacekeeping training: - trained 2,384 military peacekeeping instructors in African countries, 266 in Asian countries, 43 in Central American countries, and 26 in European countries; - refurbished training centers in Guatemala, Indonesia, Jordan, Mongolia, and Ukraine; and: - supported three annual multinational training exercises in Asia beginning in 2006, enabling peacekeeping units from different countries to train together. * Improving the capabilities of regional organizations to plan, train for, and execute peacekeeping missions. These activities include the following: - trained ECOWAS staff on mission planning and management; - provided equipment and supported operations for the ECOWAS equipment depot; - provided computer equipment to regional peacekeeping training centers in Ghana, Kenya, and Mali; and: - funded training of units from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, which will serve as a multinational brigade under the Conference of Central American Armed Forces. Smaller Proportion of GPOI Resources Have Been Targeted for Skills and Infrastructure Activities in Africa than in Asia: State has spent approximately $32 million in building skills and infrastructure in different regions of the world. As displayed in figure 7, State has spent more in Asia than Africa on activities that build skills and infrastructure--about $15 million in Asia and $12 million in Africa--although Africa receives the majority of GPOI funds overall. Figure 7: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Building Peacekeeping Skills and Infrastructure, by Region (fiscal years 2005 through 2008, as of April 2008): [See PDF for image] This figure is a pie-chart depicting the following data: Expenditures of GPOI Funds for Building Peacekeeping Skills and Infrastructure, by Region: Asia: $15,352,196 (49%); Africa: $12,215,476 (39%); South and Central America: $$2,021,096 (6%); Europe: $2,028,709 (6%); Source: GAO analysis of State Department data. Note: Near East and Central Asia expended zero funding in this time period. [End of figure] Further, State has targeted a higher proportion of funds in South and Central America, Asia, and Europe on building skills and infrastructure than on training and equipping peacekeepers within those regions. In support of its goal to build skills and infrastructure, State has spent 51 percent of all funds for Asia in this area, and about 20 percent of all funds for both South and Central America and Europe. In comparison, of the $98 million spent in Africa, 12 percent was spent on assisting with peacekeeping skills and infrastructure.[Footnote 17] In response to our findings, State officials attributed the limited focus of resources for building skills and infrastructure in Africa to a drop in funding of more than 20 percent from the funding initially anticipated in 2005. These officials told us that the program objectives were developed with the expectation of receiving $660 million and the decrease in funding to approximately $500 million over 5 years has influenced program decisions and priorities. In May 2008, State and DOD officials said that discussions are underway to develop proposals for future GPOI activities after 2010. In addition to the funds expended by State, some of the combatant commands have used DOD funds to support GPOI activities in Asia, Africa, and Europe. For instance, U.S. Pacific Command officials identified that they spent about $500,000 in fiscal year 2007 to supplement the refurbishment of buildings at Mongolia's peacekeeping training center. In addition, some of the commands assign officers to serve as liaisons at peacekeeping training centers in other countries. For instance, U.S. African Command has a liaison officer at a peacekeeping training center in Ghana, and U.S. European Command has an officer at a peacekeeping training center in Bosnia.[Footnote 18] State Faces Delays in Completing Skills and Infrastructure Activities in Africa: Activities to build skills and infrastructure in Africa have faced delays and will likely not be completed by 2010. Specifically, State faces delays in building African countries' ability to maintain their training programs, establishing a regional communication system for ECOWAS and the African Union, and transferring the equipment depot to ECOWAS. According to State officials, these delays are affected, in part, by African peacekeeping countries' limited resources and capabilities for supporting their own peacekeeping programs. State officials also have noted that the ability these countries have to support their peacekeeping program is directly affected by the rates of peacekeeper deployments these countries provide to peacekeeping missions. * In two of the African countries we visited, high rates of deployments of trained instructors limit their ability to build and maintain a training program. For example, in Senegal, officials stated that building a cadre of Senegalese instructors was difficult because once these instructors complete GPOI training, they are frequently deployed on missions due to their high skill levels. * The strategic communications system that State established for ECOWAS member countries is not fully operational. State documents identified that, while some countries were using the equipment, others had yet to either receive or use it. In commenting on a draft of this report, State told us that 11 countries have equipment and 2 are waiting on equipment delivery. State also obligated $4.5 million to set up a strategic communications system for the African Union but has been unable to install the system due to a licensing issue, according to State. * The ECOWAS equipment depot in Sierra Leone is likely to continue to function under joint control of the United States and ECOWAS. State maintains the depot, including the delivery and maintenance of nonlethal equipment used by ECOWAS members for peacekeeping and election support. State intends to transfer full responsibility to ECOWAS for the maintenance of the depot, according to State officials, but this is unlikely to happen in the near term. State officials said that ECOWAS is not fully capable of financing the depot in the near future and will require U.S. support in the near term for its operations and maintenance. More than Half of GPOI-Trained Military Peacekeepers Have Deployed to Missions, but State Cannot Assess the Quality or Effectiveness of Its Training Program: State and DOD provide training on a number of military peacekeeping skills, and 56 percent of these trained military peacekeepers from 13 countries have deployed to peacekeeping missions, as of April 2008. [Footnote 19] However, State faces challenges in assessing the quality and effectiveness of its training program. First, State cannot ascertain the proficiency of the peacekeepers it has trained against a standard level of skills taught during their training to determine if it is providing effective training. Second, State officials are unclear about their responsibilities for maintaining and recording evaluations of performance evaluations in the contractor performance system of contractors who provide training in Africa. Third, State is unable to fully account for the activities of trained instructors to measure the program's impact in building countries' capability to continue this training. Specifically, as of April 2008, State had trained more than 2,700 military instructors and supported the training of over 1,300 stability police instructors at COESPU, but could not identify whether these instructors subsequently conduct training. State and DOD Train Military Peacekeeping Units and Support Training of Stability Police but Cannot Ascertain the Proficiency of Trainees: State and DOD train military units in peacekeeping skills, primarily to aid participating countries in their deployment to peacekeeping operations.[Footnote 20] According to GPOI strategy and agency officials, the instruction is based on standard tasks identified in U.S. military training doctrine and UN training materials and is modified by the partner country's or region's needs, the skill levels of the soldiers in the unit, and the specific requirements of the peacekeeping mission. However, State does not have program-wide standards in place to measure the proficiency of trainees, the quality of instruction they receive, the performance of deployed trainees, or the activities of the trained military peacekeeping instructors. Further, State supports the Italian government, specifically the Italian Carabinieri, in providing training to stability police instructors for unit-level police operations on peacekeeping missions. However, State has no measures in place to identify the training provided by or the deployments of trained stability police instructors. Military Peacekeeper Training Consists of U.S. Military and UN Training Materials: State and DOD have provided training to military peacekeeping units in 43 of the 52 countries, according to State documents.[Footnote 21] According to State data, 56 percent of about 40,000 trained military peacekeepers from 13 countries have deployed to peacekeeping missions, the majority--97 percent--from African countries. Training is focused on providing peacekeeping skills to military units to assist preparation for deployment to a specific peacekeeping mission and is intended to supplement training already provided by the partner country.[Footnote 22] According to GPOI strategy and agency officials, GPOI implementers use relevant U.S. military doctrine to develop training instruction for military tasks. As displayed in table 2, training for these military units includes categories such as tactical skills for peacekeeping, medical care issues, and interaction with civilian groups and organizations, which contain a variety of peacekeeping tasks. For example, DOD and State provide instruction on tactical peacekeeping tasks such as how to escort a convoy, conduct checkpoint operations, or guard fixed sites. In addition, training of military peacekeepers in Africa may include instruction on firearms safety and marksmanship when training in such skills is identified as a need of that unit or country's military peacekeepers.[Footnote 23] Military peacekeeper training also includes standardized training identified by the United Nations, such as basic information about the United Nations, UN structure and capabilities, issues regulating the behavior of the individual peacekeeper, standard operations procedures, logistics, medical support, and human rights. Table 2: Peacekeeping Tasks Included in GPOI Military Skill Training: Category: Tactical peacekeeping; Types of Tasks: * Escorting convoys; * Patrolling; * Checkpoint operations; * Guarding fixed sites; * Operating a disarmament operation; * Reacting to insurgents and improvised explosive devices; * Marking unexploded ordinance. Category: Civil-military relations; Types of Tasks: * Securing noncombatants; * Evacuating noncombatants; * Reacting to civil disturbances. Category: Medical care; Types of Tasks: * Treating casualties; * Evacuating casualties. Category: Press and information operations; Types of Tasks: * Interacting with the media. Category: UN organization and standards; Types of Tasks: * Understanding gender and sexual exploitation issues. Source: GAO analysis of DOD and State training documents. Note: This table is not intended to serve as an exhaustive list of available peacekeeping tasks. [End of table] Military officers also are provided training in planning and managing battalion functions during peacekeeping operations. For example, officers are introduced to skills needed to plan and execute the protection of a fixed site, such as a food distribution site or protecting a convoy. In Africa, State provides more detailed training in military staff skills than in Asia, in response to the level of capabilities and needs of the peacekeeping units. For example, training of peacekeeping military officers in Africa includes instruction on the basic roles and responsibilities of officers staffed to a battalion. While there are some consistencies across the regions in the curriculum available, military peacekeepers do not receive the same training in all regions. Regional implementers have developed a training curriculum that is generally based on tasks identified in U.S. military doctrine and UN training materials, which are modified to address the specific needs or desires of the region or country. Identified training instruction is further modified or adapted for each training session to meet the identified needs of the partner country, skill levels of the individuals in the unit to be trained, and the requirements of the specific peacekeeping mission, according to training officials and State and DOD program implementers. COESPU Training Tailored to General Topics of Instruction for Stability Police Units: COESPU has trained stability police instructors from 13 countries, providing training at two levels--senior-and junior-level officers or their civilian equivalents. Training for junior-level instructors is focused on the leaders of a stability police unit, while senior-level training is focused on the overall leadership of stability police operations. Courses in both levels include instruction on peace support operations, tactics, stability police operations, humanitarian law, international law, territorial awareness, and first aid. The Italian government developed the COESPU curriculum to provide general instruction for unit-level police operations on peacekeeping missions rather than tailoring the curriculum to specific missions. The 5-week senior-level course instructs course participants on the management of stability police operations as well as tactical instruction on shooting and driving. The 7-week junior-level course includes tactical courses on crowd control, urban area patrolling, high-risk arrests, VIP security, fire fighting, shooting, driving, and personal defense. The junior-level course also contains a simulation where course participants practice their skills in the training area. State Cannot Assess the Proficiency of Trainees to Determine if Capabilities Are Comparable to Other GPOI-Trained Peacekeepers: State does not have an established process for measuring the proficiency of trainees who receive similar types of training. GPOI trainers conduct training exercises and use after-action reviews and their professional judgment to determine students' ability to perform tasks as a unit during a training course. However, State and DOD do not evaluate the military peacekeeper trainees against a program-wide standard level of proficiency in the skills taught during their training. For example, the evaluation process to assess a unit's proficiency in operating a checkpoint depends on the instructor's judgment, and the information is not collected in a way that can be compared against other trained units. Rather, a participant is considered a GPOI-trained peacekeeper if he or she attends 80 percent of the training GPOI provides. In commenting on a draft of this report, State noted that an individual participant is considered a GPOI-trained peacekeeper if his or her unit masters 80 percent of the training GPOI provides. However, according to the GPOI strategy and reporting provided by the GPOI evaluation team, implementers and trainers collect information that identifies individuals that participated in at least 80 percent of the training curriculum. Furthermore, the GPOI strategy states that the number of individuals who participate in unit training may be counted toward the goal of 75,000 if individuals are present for 80 percent or more of the unit training. In addition, implementers we met with told us that participants are counted as trained if they participate in at least 80 percent of the training curriculum. State provided one example in which 50 students from one country participating in two training courses were not counted as GPOI-trained because it was determined that the personnel were not sufficiently trained due to poor English language ability. Training and program officials in the countries we visited stated that, although they are not required to test students, they use their professional judgment as former or current U.S. military personnel to monitor students' performance and determine if more time should be spent in developing certain skills, when possible. According to training documents, after receiving instruction in tactical peacekeeping tasks, trainees perform the task as a unit, and the instructors are to observe their performance and determine how the unit is performing against a standard checklist of items. For example, during an exercise for securing a distribution site, instructors will observe the training to judge if the unit follows proper procedures to control a crowd, set up checkpoints and observation points for the distribution area, and report incident information. Trainers in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Senegal stated that the intent of the training is to expose students to the tasks they need for peacekeeping, although they are not expected to achieve a specific level of proficiency in the skills taught. Military troops from Ghana and Senegal account for 44 percent of the deployed GPOI-trained troops. In addition, State officials told us that although instructors follow training standards, the evaluation process of training is subjective and a unit's performance is affected by the skills and capabilities the soldiers bring to the training. The 2006 GPOI strategy states that GPOI program management personnel were in the process of developing military task lists and related trainings standards to contribute to standardization, interoperability, and sustainability, and ensure the proper use of resources. The strategy also states that developing such standards would help efforts to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the GPOI training program, events, and activities. However, during the course of our review State officials were unable to provide program-wide standards against which they could collect assessments to identify and evaluate the overall proficiency in comparable peacekeeping skills provided by GPOI to trainees worldwide. In commenting on a draft of this report, State stated that the program currently does not have standard military task lists and associated training standards to specify tasks, conditions, and standards for different types of military units participating in peacekeeping operations but that steps are being taken to develop training standards and military task lists that would be used as a basis to develop training plans and assess trainees. Such an evaluation would provide a measure with which to evaluate data that may be collected to identify the quality of the military peacekeepers GPOI has trained. Another measure of trainees' performance is how a unit performs during a peacekeeping mission. However, State and DOD are unable to collect assessments of peacekeepers' performance during a mission. GPOI trainers in Senegal, Ghana, and Ethiopia said they occasionally receive UN after-action reports that provide feedback on the performance of military peacekeepers trained by GPOI. However, State and DOD do not routinely collect or analyze these reports or independently assess how GPOI-trained troops performed. Without consistent reporting on the performance of the deployed units, State is unable to compare the performance of units trained within a country or region or between regions to identify similarities in the proficiency of military peacekeepers trained by GPOI. State Has Procedures for Monitoring Contractors Providing Training in Africa but Officials Are Unclear about Their Responsibility for Recording and Maintaining Performance Evaluations: State has some procedures in place to monitor whether contractors are meeting cost, schedule, and performance requirements in training peacekeepers and providing advisor support. Specifically, State has assigned personnel in its Bureau of African Affairs to monitor the performance of contractors providing advisor support in Africa, established a program management team to oversee the activities of contractors providing training in Africa,[Footnote 24] and developed a plan to regularly monitor contractor performance. In addition, State receives regular status reports from the contractors. Quality assurance, especially regular surveillance and documentation of results, is essential to determine whether goods or services provided by the contractor satisfy the contract requirements. Surveillance includes oversight of a contractor's work to provide assurance that the contractor is providing timely and quality goods or services and to help mitigate any contractor performance problems. An agency's monitoring of a contractor's performance may serve as a basis for past performance evaluations that are considered during future source selections. State has a plan for monitoring and evaluating the performance of its contractors providing training in Africa. The quality assurance plan specifies the desired outcomes of the training provided, performance standards that the contractors are to meet, and State's process for evaluating contractors' performance. Although State's quality assurance plan identifies the process for evaluating contractors' performance, State officials implementing the program are unclear which office at State is responsible for recording the evaluation in the contractor performance system, as required by State regulations.[Footnote 25] State's contracting officials were uncertain whether evaluations of past contractor performance for training in Africa had been entered in the system by the program management team. An official from the ACOTA program management team told us they are not responsible for entering performance evaluations in the contractor performance system, in part because they are unable to access the system. However, evaluations of contractor past performance are prepared and maintained by this team, according to this official. State provided some evidence that indicated that evaluations of contractors' past performance had been prepared by the ACOTA program management team and considered when new task orders were placed on the existing contract for training in Africa. However, we did not fully assess the extent to which the evaluations of contractors' performance had been completed and considered in awarding training task orders. We did not examine State's compliance with its performance plan and the extent to which past performance evaluations were used to award training task orders. State Cannot Identify the Outcomes of the Training Program: State cannot fully account for the training activities of more than 2,700 military peacekeeping instructors trained by the GPOI program. Further, State has supported the training of more than 1,300 stability police instructors at COESPU but cannot account for either the training or the deployment activities of these instructors. State Is Unable to Identify whether Military Peacekeeping Instructors Are Conducting Training as Intended: The activities of trained instructors provide a measure for the progress made in building a partner country's capacity to sustain its peacekeeper deployments in the future. Although State and DOD have trained more than 2,700 military peacekeeper instructors to continue training in their respective countries, State cannot fully determine whether this training has taken place. For example, as of April 2008, State had only been able to identify training that had occurred by GPOI- trained instructors for two countries.[Footnote 26] The deployment of peacekeepers trained by these instructors is another measure of the program's ability to increase peacekeeping contributions. In March 2008, 47 GPOI partner countries had military peacekeepers and observers deployed to UN peacekeeping missions. State cannot fully identify how many troops from these 47 countries, if any, were trained by the 2,700 GPOI-trained military peacekeeping instructors. State Is Unable to Identify the Extent to Which Stability Police Instructors Are Conducting Training and Deploying to Peacekeeping Missions: COESPU has estimated that instructors trained at its training program will train an additional 4,500 stability police, according to COESPU documents and officials. The training activities of COESPU graduates are one measure of the efforts by Italy and the United States to increase worldwide capacity for stability police. Although State has supported the training of more than 1,300 stability police instructors at COESPU, State and COESPU have been unable to fully account for training conducted by these instructors in their home countries. Specifically, State has only been able to account for the indigenous training of one stability police unit conducted by COESPU graduates from one country, according to a State document. State and COESPU also are unable to identify if stability police units deploying to peacekeeping missions were trained by graduates from COESPU or if these graduates have deployed to missions themselves. First, State has been able to account only for the deployment of a stability police unit from the one country in which the unit was trained by graduates of COESPU, as of April 2008. Second, although COESPU has trained some instructors that are likely to lead stability police units in peacekeeping operations, State and COESPU cannot fully account for the deployments of these instructors. Specifically, State can account for the deployments of 13 of 236 students from India who were trained at COESPU, as of April 2008. GPOI Partner Countries Generally Meet Program Criteria, but in Some Cases State Did Not Screen Trainees for Potential Violations of Human Rights: According to the GPOI strategy and State officials, before countries and their peacekeepers can receive GPOI training and other assistance, they must generally meet certain criteria including having an elected government, an acceptable human rights record, and the willingness to participate in peace support operations. GPOI partner countries generally met the criteria for inclusion in the program. However, for 24 of the 52 countries, State's human rights reports for 2007 identified human rights violations by security personnel. To comply with U.S. laws, State must verify that it does not have credible evidence that the foreign security forces identified to receive assistance have committed gross violations of human rights prior to the provision of training.[Footnote 27] We found that military peacekeepers and stability police were not always screened or were not properly screened for human rights abuses, as required by State guidance for the legislative requirements. GPOI Partner Countries Generally Meet Program Criteria: State, in consultation with DOD, has selected 52 partner countries to participate in GPOI based on a list of criteria identified in the program's strategy.[Footnote 28] Partner countries should have an elected government and acceptable human rights record, willingness to participate in peace support operations, and agreements to ensure that U.S. training and equipment are used for the purposes intended, according to agency documents. State and DOD periodically review whether partner countries continue to meet these criteria and may suspend GPOI funding in cases where criteria are not met, according to agency officials. For example, funding of GPOI activities for Thailand was suspended after a military coup overthrew the democratically elected government in 2006.[Footnote 29] However, some DOD officials expressed concern about the selection of certain countries and the criteria used to select countries. For example, officials in the African and Pacific commands and the Joint Staff said they did not agree with the selection of two countries in Africa and Asia and they felt it would limit available resources for ongoing activities in other countries. In another example, a DOD official said that additional criteria, such as the military HIV infection rates or attrition rates, should be taken into account in selecting partner countries because these factors affect the country's ability to deploy. For the training of stability police at COESPU, Italy and the United States jointly decided which countries would participate. We found that most of the 52 partner countries met the participation criteria, but 24 countries had identified human rights violations by security personnel in State's human rights reporting for 2007.[Footnote 30] State officials cited a number of reasons to justify the inclusion of these countries in GPOI: State did not consider the human rights violations for some countries to be a systemic problem in the military or stated that these violations were associated with private security companies, not with the countries' military personnel;[Footnote 31] some countries were selected to support other strategic goals; and participation would allow some countries to receive human rights training not otherwise available. In addition, State officials said that the selection criteria are recommended but not required by the program and the United States engaged in diplomatic discussions with these countries to improve their human rights records. These officials indicated that the vetting of trainees for human rights abuses guards against the training of any human rights violators. Finally, State also formally submits a list of GPOI partner countries each year to Congress to ensure that Congress has oversight over the list of partner countries. State Did Not Properly Screen and Did Not Always Follow Its Guidance for Human Rights Vetting: Before providing any training or equipment support under GPOI, State must verify that it does not have credible evidence that the foreign security forces identified to receive assistance have committed gross violations of human rights. In our review of vetting documentation of 2007 GPOI trainees from 14 countries[Footnote 32] identified in State reporting to have documented human rights violations by security personnel, we found cases where individuals and units that received training were not properly vetted. Each of the annual Foreign Operations Appropriations Acts from 1998 to 2006 included a provision, commonly referred to as the Leahy Amendment, that restricted the provision of assistance appropriated in these acts to any foreign security unit when the Secretary of State has credible evidence that the unit has committed gross violations of human rights. In the fiscal year 2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act, the Foreign Assistance Act was permanently amended to restrict the provision of assistance to foreign security units when credible evidence exists of gross violations of human rights by that unit. While the legal provisions restrict funding to "any unit of the security forces of a foreign country," State guidance is to screen or vet individuals who are identified for individual training or who are members of newly formed or composite units.[Footnote 33] Should an entire existing unit receive the training together, State guidance requires vetting of the unit name and commander only. To implement these legislative restrictions, State's guidance calls for U.S. embassies and State bureaus to screen individuals or units proposed for training to determine whether these foreign security forces have committed gross human rights violations. We found that State did not vet some individuals and units for human rights violations before training. Specifically, all 81 military peacekeepers who received training in 2007 from Honduras were not vetted before participating in GPOI-funded training courses. In addition, 16 military peacekeepers and stability police from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Sri Lanka were not vetted out of 382 trained in those countries in 2007, and a 665-person Nigerian battalion trained by GPOI was not vetted. In response to our findings, State officials have begun the vetting process for the individuals from Honduras who received GPOI training. We also found that some individuals who received training in 2007 were not screened in accordance with State's guidance for vetting newly formed or composite units. Specifically, the commanders of seven composite units in Niger, Nigeria, and Uganda and the commander of the ECOWAS standby force were screened for human rights violations, but the individual members of these units were not vetted, as required by State guidance. As a result of these lapses in vetting, it is possible that State and DOD have provided training to security personnel who committed human rights violations. State and DOD officials in the countries we visited said they face challenges in conducting vetting prior to training due to the difficulties both in getting the names of individuals in units prior to training and in having sufficient time to properly conduct vetting in the country and in Washington, D.C. State officials in the ACOTA office told us they have taken corrective action to prevent further vetting oversights by creating a new position in their office that would be responsible, in part, for monitoring the vetting data for all training provided in Africa. Conclusions: The growth of peace support operations has increased the importance and need for more comprehensive measures to ensure worldwide capability and capacity for responding to peacekeeping demands. The United States has taken the lead in the G8 goal to build this peacekeeping capability worldwide through GPOI. Since 2005, State and DOD, focusing the majority of GPOI resources on efforts in Africa, have undertaken numerous activities to increase countries' ability to serve in peacekeeping missions, including the training of nearly 40,000 military peacekeepers. However, it appears that GPOI will fall short of reaching certain established goals, such as training 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010. State also has faced some challenges in supporting COESPU's need for additional staff, accounting for the delivery and transfer of nonlethal training equipment to partner countries, evaluating the quality and effectiveness of its training program, and screening trainees for human rights abuses. Addressing these challenges will enhance GPOI's effectiveness as the program nears the end of its 5-year authorization and will help ensure that U.S. resources are focused on building partner countries' capabilities to provide quality peacekeepers worldwide. To meet the G8 commitment to expand global capabilities for peace support operations, GPOI activities that extend beyond 2010 will require more emphasis on developing the capabilities of African partners to maintain peacekeeping operations on their own. Recommendations for Executive Action: To enhance GPOI's effectiveness, better identify program outcomes, and ensure proper screening for human rights violations, we recommend that the Secretary of State take the following six actions: 1. Work in consultation with DOD to assist Italy in staffing the key unfilled positions at COESPU to better evaluate progress made and monitor results. 2. Monitor implementation of new procedures to account for delivery and transfer of nonlethal training equipment to partner countries on an ongoing basis. 3. Provide additional guidance to U.S. missions to help the United States and Italy collect data on the training and deployment activities of COESPU graduates in their home countries. 4. Develop and implement, in consultation with DOD and in accordance with the GPOI strategy, the use of standard military task lists and related training standards to enable program managers to evaluate the quality of training and measure the proficiency of trainees program- wide. 5. Ensure that the evaluations of contractor performance of training in Africa are properly recorded into the contractor performance system as required by agency regulations. 6. Develop a system for monitoring the vetting activities for all GPOI training and ensure that all individuals in composite units are vetted for human rights violations, as required by State policy. To ensure that GPOI activities enhance the capabilities of countries to maintain peacekeeping operations on their own, we also recommend that the Secretary of State, in consultation with DOD, take the following two actions: 1. Assess estimated resources and time frames needed to complete peacekeeping skills and infrastructure activities in Africa by 2010. 2. Ensure that any plans for extending GPOI activities beyond 2010 identify sufficient resources for developing long-term peacekeeping skills and infrastructure in Africa. Agency Comments and Our Evaluation: We provided draft copies of this report to the Departments of State and Defense. We received written comments from State and DOD, which we have reprinted in appendixes VII and VIII, respectively. State and DOD provided technical comments which we have incorporated in the report, as appropriate. State concurred or partially concurred with seven of the eight GAO recommendations and provided additional information to highlight the program's achievements. State did not concur with GAO's recommendation to develop a method for evaluating GPOI training. State notes that methods already exist to evaluate the quality of the training program and measure the proficiency of trainees. We disagree that State's current evaluation methods address our recommendation. State has not developed military task lists and associated training that can be applied at all GPOI training sites; sites currently use varying standards to assess the proficiency of trainees. DOD agrees with the need for greater standardization and more analysis of trainee performance. We modified the recommendation to clarify the need for GPOI-wide standard military tasks and related training that State, in consultation with DOD, should develop in accordance with the commitments made in the GPOI strategy. State also commented that it now projects that GPOI will train 75,000 peacekeepers by July 2010 based on new training rates. We were unable to validate State's new data since as recently as May 2008, program officials indicated that slow expenditure rates would delay State's efforts to reach the 2010 training goal. DOD agreed with the findings and concurred or partially concurred with our recommendations. DOD agreed with the need for greater standardization and more analysis of trainee performance and agreed that State should work with DOD and Italy to validate personnel shortfalls at COESPU and fill the identified positions. DOD also stated that an assessment of resources and time frames required to achieve GPOI objectives should apply to all regions engaged by the GPOI program. We did not revise this recommendation because it is intended to address our finding that State is unlikely to complete skills and infrastructure activities in Africa by 2010. We are sending copies of this report to the Secretaries of State and Defense. We will also make copies available to others on request. In addition, the report will be available at no charge on the GAO Web site at [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov]. If you or your staffs have any questions about this report, please contact me at (202) 512-8979 or christoffj@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last page of this report. GAO staff who made contributions to this report are listed in appendix IX. Signed by: Joseph A. Christoff: Director, International Affairs and Trade: List of Committees: The Honorable Carl Levin: Chairman: The Honorable John McCain: Ranking Member: Committee on Armed Services: United States Senate: The Honorable Joseph R. Biden: Chairman: The Honorable Richard G. Lugar: Ranking Member: Committee on Foreign Relations: United States Senate: The Honorable Daniel K. Inouye: Chairman: The Honorable Ted Stevens: Ranking Member: Subcommittee on Defense: Committee on Appropriations: United States Senate: The Honorable Ike Skelton: Chairman: The Honorable Duncan L. Hunter: Ranking Member: Committee on Armed Services: House of Representatives: The Honorable Howard L. Berman: Chairman: The Honorable Ileana Ros-Lehtinen: Ranking Member: Committee on Foreign Affairs: House of Representatives: The Honorable John P. Murtha: Chairman: The Honorable C.W. Bill Young: Ranking Member: Subcommittee on Defense: Committee on Appropriations: House of Representatives: [End of section] Appendix I: Scope and Methodology: In response to a congressional mandate in the fiscal year 2008 Defense Authorization Act to review the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), we assessed (1) the progress made in meeting GPOI goals, (2) whether State is consistently assessing the quality and effectiveness of the training program, and (3) the extent to which countries meet program criteria and whether program participants are adequately screened for human rights abuses. We attended a planning conference in October 2007 in Washington, D.C., for GPOI implementers and an October 2007 conference with Group of Eight (G8) members and other partners to discuss worldwide efforts to enhance peacekeeping. Our scope of work included the Departments of State (State) and Defense (DOD) in Washington, D.C.; U.S. Combatant Commands for Africa, Europe, Pacific, and Southern Hemisphere; and site visits to Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Italy, Mongolia, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. We observed training and visited facilities refurbished with GPOI funds during site visits to Ghana, Guatemala, Italy, Mongolia, and Senegal. In selecting field work countries, we considered the following criteria: funding allocations, number of military peacekeepers trained, number of trained peacekeepers that have deployed to missions, training schedules, and unique characteristics, such as the location of Italy's training school for stability police and the equipment depot in Sierra Leone. We selected these countries in Africa, Asia, and Central America because they had received more funding allocations and had trained and deployed more troops than other GPOI partner countries in those regions and also were scheduled to conduct training during our visits. We selected Italy to assess U.S. support to stability police training at the Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU), Germany to interview officials from the U.S. European and African commands, Sierra Leone to assess the GPOI equipment depot, and Ethiopia to assess GPOI activities with the African Union. To assess the progress GPOI made in meeting its goals, we reviewed data gathered by State on the number of troops trained and the equipment provided, reports from agencies and COESPU of activities at COESPU, and monthly and annual progress reports. We compared the information in these sources with benchmarks established in the GPOI strategy for the goals and objectives of the program. In addition, we collected and reviewed information on obligations and expenditures of GPOI funds and surveyed the combatant commands responsible for implementing GPOI to estimate any additional funds they used to support GPOI activities. To assess the reliability of State's data on troops trained and equipment provided, as well as obligations and expenditures, we reviewed relevant documentation and spoke with agency officials, including the GPOI program assessment team, about data quality control procedures. We determined that the data were sufficiently reliable for the purposes of this report. To determine whether State is consistently assessing the quality and effectiveness of the GPOI training program, we identified the training provided and determined what training assessments were conducted. We reviewed training programs of instruction, training contracts and task orders, and related training documents. We also interviewed State and DOD officials in Washington, D.C., and during site visits to the countries listed, as well as trainers in Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Mongolia, and Senegal. To identify the training provided at COESPU, we reviewed training documents and conducted interviews with Italian officials at COESPU. To identify the measures that State has in place to oversee contractor activities for training and advisor support in Africa, we reviewed contracts and related documents and interviewed State officials, including officials from the Office of Acquisitions Management and the Bureau of African Affairs. To identify the activities of trained instructors and stability police, we reviewed data gathered by State on the deployments of trained military peacekeepers, including instructors and stability police instructors, and data gathered by State and COESPU on the training activities of these instructors. We also interviewed Italian officials at COESPU, State officials, and training officials and contractors. We reviewed relevant documentation and spoke with agency officials, including the GPOI program assessment team, about data quality control procedures. We identified a limitation in the data on deployments of trained peacekeepers. State is not able to obtain the individual names of those who deploy to compare with the rosters of those trained under GPOI. However, based on the fact that State can identify which of the units trained under GPOI has deployed, and that any individual who joins the peacekeeping unit subsequent to its training by GPOI may receive additional training from their unit officers, we determined that the data on military peacekeepers deployed were sufficiently reliable for the purposes of reporting the deployments of GPOI-trained peacekeeping. For the data on the activities of instructors trained under GPOI, we found that State and COESPU did not have complete or reliable data for the purposes of identifying comprehensive information about the training activities of these individuals in their home country. We also found that COESPU and State did not have sufficient information to identify the deployment or training activities of stability police instructors trained at COESPU. To determine the extent to which countries meet program criteria and whether participants are adequately screened for human rights abuses, we examined the GPOI strategy and interviewed State and DOD officials in Washington, D.C., and during site visits to the countries listed previously. To determine how human rights violations were taken into account, we compared State's 2007 human rights reports, which identified countries with documented human rights violations by security personnel, with the list of GPOI partner countries. We also reviewed State's human rights reports to identify whether partner countries had an elected government. To determine whether GPOI countries showed a willingness to deploy, we examined which countries had deployed troops on United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions. To ensure that end-use and re-transfer provisions for equipment and training were agreed to, we reviewed whether Section 505 agreements were signed with each of the countries.[Footnote 34] We interviewed State officials and collected additional information for countries that did not clearly meet some of these criteria. In addition, we reviewed State documents identifying human rights vetting procedures. We selected 14 countries with documented human rights violations by security forces that received training in 2007 and assessed whether individuals and units trained in these countries were vetted for human rights violations. To do this, we compared vetting records from State for the training provided to individuals and units from these countries with the training rosters provided by State. We conducted this performance audit from August 2007 to June 2008 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. [End of section] Appendix II: GPOI Partner Countries: There are 52 countries that received GPOI training, equipment, or other support to enhance their peacekeeping capabilities and contributions. Table 3 provides a list of partner countries that received support for their military peacekeeping, stability police, or both, from 2004 to 2008, as of April 2008. Table 3: GPOI Partner Countries 2004 to 2008, as of April 2008: Country/Organization: Africa: Angola; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Benin; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Botswana; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner:[Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Burkina Faso; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Burundi; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Cameroon; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Africa: Ethiopia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Gabon; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Ghana; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Kenya; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Africa: Malawi; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Mali; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Africa: Mozambique; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Namibia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Niger; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Nigeria; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Africa: Rwanda; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Senegal; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Africa: South Africa; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Africa: Tanzania; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Uganda; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Africa: Zambia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Europe: Albania; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Europe: Macedonia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Europe: Romania; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Europe: Serbia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Check]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Europe: Ukraine; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Near East and Central Asia: Jordan; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Near East and Central Asia: Morocco[A]; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Check]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Near East and Central Asia: Kazakhstan; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Near East and Central Asia: Tajikistan; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Bangladesh; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Cambodia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Fiji[A]; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: India; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Check]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Indonesia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Asia: Malaysia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Mongolia; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Nepal; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Pakistan; Military peacekeeping partner: [Empty]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Check]. Country/Organization: Asia: Philippines; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Sri Lanka; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Asia: Thailand; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: South and Central America: Belize; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: South and Central America: Chile; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: South and Central America: El Salvador; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: South and Central America: Guatemala; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: South and Central America: Honduras; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: South and Central America: Nicaragua; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: South and Central America: Paraguay; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: South and Central America: Peru; Military peacekeeping partner: [Check]; Stability police partner: [Empty]; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: [Empty]. Country/Organization: Total: 52 countries; Military peacekeeping partner: 38 countries; Stability police partner: 3 countries; Military peacekeeping and stability police partner: 11 countries. Source: GAO analysis of State data. [A] Morocco and Fiji are not currently GPOI partner countries. [End of table] [End of section] Appendix III: International Contributions to 2004 G8 Summit Goal and GPOI: The members of the G8 and other nations have supported the commitments of the 2004 G8 Summit and GPOI.[Footnote 35] The information below provides additional information on the nature of contributions made by the international community but does not provide a comprehensive list of all contributions made by the G8 and other nations. G8 nations have contributed to peace support operations in a number of ways, including the training and equipping of military peacekeepers, individual police, and stability police; supporting the development of peacekeeping doctrine; providing funding to support national and regional peacekeeping training centers; providing funding and logistical support to regional organizations; and establishing a stability police training school. For example, three G8 nations have provided instructors to the COESPU, according to State and COESPU officials. In another example, countries have provided equipment to support the troops deployed to peacekeeping missions. Contributions of G8 nations are largely for activities in Africa or in support of peacekeeping missions in this region, according to State documents. According to State, in 2007, the G8 and other nations identified 760 peacekeeping-related programs, events, and activities that member states were conducting in Africa alone. The G8 and other nations also have directly contributed to the U.S. GPOI program. According to State, 19 countries have contributed to the U.S. program, primarily by providing training instructors to support GPOI-funded training.[Footnote 36] For example, 4 countries provided instructors to the Central American peacekeeper training school in Guatemala and 14 countries provided instructors to the multilateral peacekeeper training exercises held in Mongolia in 2006 and 2007. State paid travel costs for all the training instructors for the Central American training. For the Mongolia exercises, seven countries paid their own way, and State and DOD paid for the remaining countries. Two countries also have provided funding and personnel support directly to State for GPOI. Specifically, the Netherlands has committed to provide State with $7 million per year for 3 years, to be used for peacekeeping training and equipment activities in Africa. According to State officials, about $5.3 million was received at the end of 2007, and they expect to receive the remaining $1.7 million for 2007 in the near term. State officials in the Bureau of African Affairs told us that two additional countries have indicated plans to provide a total of about $37 million directly to State to support peacekeeping missions in Darfur and Somalia. [End of section] Appendix IV: Training and Peacekeeping Deployments of GPOI Partners: State and DOD have trained nearly 40,000 military peacekeepers from a total of 43 countries and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). As of April 2008, about 56 percent of GPOI-trained military peacekeepers have deployed to peacekeeping missions, and the majority have deployed from African partner countries.[Footnote 37] As table 4 shows, of the 39,518 military peacekeepers trained by GPOI, almost 22,000 have deployed to peacekeeping missions.[Footnote 38] According to State, these peacekeepers have deployed to 12 United Nations or African Union missions, as well as other missions not supported by the UN or the African Union. African partner countries have deployed the majority of GPOI-trained military peacekeepers--97 percent or 21,435-- and the remaining 3 percent have deployed from partner countries in Asia. An additional 6,277 military peacekeepers from African partner countries were trained in anticipation of deployments to UN missions in the near future, according to State reporting. Table 4: Military Peacekeepers Trained by GPOI and Deployed, by Country and Region (as of April 2008): GPOI partner: Africa: Benin; Peacekeepers trained: 2,519; Peacekeepers deployed: 2,053. GPOI partner: Africa: Botswana; Peacekeepers trained: 165; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Burkina Faso; Peacekeepers trained: 1,890; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Cameroon; Peacekeepers trained: 12; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)[A]; Peacekeepers trained: 288; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Gabon; Peacekeepers trained: 1,393; Peacekeepers deployed: 202. GPOI partner: Africa: Ghana; Peacekeepers trained: 3,853; Peacekeepers deployed: 2,920. GPOI partner: Africa: Kenya; Peacekeepers trained: 86; Peacekeepers deployed: 39. GPOI partner: Africa: Malawi; Peacekeepers trained: 1,073; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Mali; Peacekeepers trained: 997; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Mozambique; Peacekeepers trained: 1,029; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Namibia; Peacekeepers trained: 882; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Niger; Peacekeepers trained: 1,157; Peacekeepers deployed: 666. GPOI partner: Africa: Nigeria; Peacekeepers trained: 4,988; Peacekeepers deployed: 3,758. GPOI partner: Africa: Rwanda; Peacekeepers trained: 4,903; Peacekeepers deployed: 4,811. GPOI partner: Africa: Senegal; Peacekeepers trained: 7,888; Peacekeepers deployed: 6,833. GPOI partner: Africa: South Africa; Peacekeepers trained: 243; Peacekeepers deployed: 98. GPOI partner: Africa: Tanzania; Peacekeepers trained: 971; Peacekeepers deployed: 55. GPOI partner: Africa: Uganda; Peacekeepers trained: 1,955; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Africa: Zambia; Peacekeepers trained: 676; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Subtotal Africa; Peacekeepers trained: 36,968; Peacekeepers deployed: 21,435. GPOI partner: Asia: Bangladesh; Peacekeepers trained: 128; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Brunei[B]; Peacekeepers trained: 6; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Cambodia; Peacekeepers trained: 173; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Fiji; Peacekeepers trained: 47; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: India[B]; Peacekeepers trained: 47; Peacekeepers deployed: 45. GPOI partner: Asia: Indonesia; Peacekeepers trained: 208; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Laos[B]; Peacekeepers trained: 1; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Malaysia; Peacekeepers trained: 116; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Mongolia; Peacekeepers trained: 629; Peacekeepers deployed: 497. GPOI partner: Asia: Nepal; Peacekeepers trained: 11; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Philippines; Peacekeepers trained: 8; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Singapore[B]; Peacekeepers trained: 10; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Sri Lanka; Peacekeepers trained: 58; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Thailand; Peacekeepers trained: 278; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Asia: Tonga[B]; Peacekeepers trained: 85; Peacekeepers deployed: 19. GPOI partner: Subtotal Asia; Peacekeepers trained: 1,805; Peacekeepers deployed: 561. GPOI partner: South and Central America: Belize; Peacekeepers trained: 2; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: South and Central America: El Salvador; Peacekeepers trained: 24; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: South and Central America: Guatemala; Peacekeepers trained: 306; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: South and Central America: Honduras; Peacekeepers trained: 87; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: South and Central America: Nicaragua; Peacekeepers trained: 36; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Subtotal South and Central America; Peacekeepers trained: 455; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Europe: Albania; Peacekeepers trained: 254; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Peacekeepers trained: 1; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Europe: Ukraine; Peacekeepers trained: 34; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Subtotal for Europe; Peacekeepers trained: 289; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Near East and Central Asia: Jordan; Peacekeepers trained: 1; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Subtotal Near East and Central Asia; Peacekeepers trained: 1; Peacekeepers deployed: 0. GPOI partner: Total; Peacekeepers trained: 39,518; Peacekeepers deployed: 21,996[C]. Source: GAO analysis of State data. [A] Training for ECOWAS was for the commander and staff of the Standby Force Headquarters. Multiple countries participated in these exercises. [B] Brunei, India, Laos, Singapore, and Tonga did not receive GPOI funds, but sent peacekeepers to be trained during GPOI-funded events. [C] GPOI also has provided deployment equipment and transportation to support the deployment of 4,680 military peacekeepers from Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda, and an unspecified number of military peacekeepers from Chile and Guatemala. In addition, 229 military peacekeepers from Mongolia deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq, and 343 military peacekeepers deployed to Afghanistan from the South-Eastern Europe Brigade of the Multinational Peace Force South-East Europe. [End of table] [End of section] Appendix V: Equipment Provided to GPOI Partner Countries: Table 5 provides information on the type of equipment that has been or may be provided to partner countries to support training and deployments for peacekeeping. Table 6 provides information on the type of equipment that has been provided to COESPU to support stability police training. State officials indicated that military peacekeepers keep some of the individual training equipment for use during deployments. Table 5: Types of Military Peacekeeping Equipment Provided to GPOI Partners: Category of equipment: Individual equipment; Types of equipment: * Uniforms[A]; * Boots; * Helmets; * First aid kits; * Sleeping bags; * Flashlights; * Knee and elbow pads; * Goggles; * Hammocks; * Wet weather ponchos; * Load-bearing suspenders; * Small arms cases; * Shovels; * Duffel bags; * Field packs. Category of equipment: Unit equipment; Types of equipment: * Computers, software, office supplies; * Weapons cleaning kits; * Kevlar helmets; * Canteens; * Compasses; * Global positioning systems (GPS); * Radios; * Tents; * Mine detection kits; * Riot batons or policeman clubs; * Riot shields; * Pickup trucks, buses, military HUMVEEs, ambulances; * Topography equipment; * Tool kits for carpenters, electricians, and plumbers; * Folding cots; * Insect nets; * Portable bath units. Category of equipment: Deployment equipment; Types of equipment: * Level 1 medical clinic (100 beds, large tents, lab, surgery area)[B]; * Field kitchens[B]; * Night vision goggles; * Radios; * Refrigeration truck[B]; * Water purification units; * Generators; * Tents; * Fork lifts, pick-up trucks; * Fuel tankers (10,000 liters)[C]; * Fuel trucks (5000 liters)[C]; * Water tankers (5000 liters)[C]; * Concertina wire[B]. Source: GAO analysis of State data. [A] Uniform includes undershirt, shirt, pants, hats and belts. Gloves include light duty gloves and barbed wire handling. [B] Equipment provided to the African Union, directly to support the African Union Mission to Somalia. [C] Equipment provided to African Union Mission in Sudan. [End of table] Table 6: Types of Training Equipment Provided for COESPU Training: Category of equipment: Individual equipment; Types of equipment: * Under garments; * Uniforms; * Gym suits; * Winter jackets and hats; * Basic hygiene products; * Boots; * Study materials (notebooks); * SWAT gloves. Category of equipment: Training equipment; Types of equipment: * Library and media materials; * Computer equipment; * Bedding; * Plexiglas riot shields; * Riot batons; * Body armor; * Shin and arm protectors; * Mannequins for self-defense training; * Helmets with face shields; * NBCR[A] suits, decontamination kits, signals; * Plastic weapons; * Nonlethal teargas canister thrower; * Nonlethal tear gas and flash bang canisters; * Inert improvised explosive devices (for demonstrations); * Firefighting equipment. Source: GAO analysis of State data. [A] NBCR is Nuclear Biological Chemical Radiological. [End of table] [End of section] Appendix VI: GPOI Activities to Support Long-term Skills and Infrastructure for Peacekeeping: Table 7 provides information on the type and status of activities that State and DOD have conducted to build skills and infrastructure to meet partner countries' long-term needs to sustain peacekeeping. Table 7: Activities to Build Skills and Infrastructure for Peacekeeping, by Region (as of April 2008): Type of support provided, by region: Africa: Advisors to support African Union (AU) and ECOWAS; Status: Currently providing two advisors to support AU and ECOWAS: one assisting ECOWAS Strategic Management Planning Cell, and one assisting the AU in planning peacekeeping operations. In 2005 to 2006, two additional positions for advisor support to AU and ECOWAS were supported. State officials are considering phasing out advisor support and providing direct financial assistance to AU and ECOWAS. Type of support provided, by region: Africa: Training instructors to continue peacekeeping training; Status: Trained 2,384 instructors. Type of support provided, by region: Africa: Strategic communications systems for ECOWAS and AU; Status: ECOWAS Regional Information Exchange System partially active, but some countries do not have equipment installed. AU Regional Information Exchange System has not been installed due to a licensing issue. Also provided travel support for a command control and communication information systems conference. Type of support provided, by region: Africa: Training to ECOWAS to support stand up of regional peacekeeping battalion; Status: Three training sessions conducted for ECOWAS Standby Taskforce Headquarters staff. Type of support provided, by region: Africa: Multinational peacekeeping exercises; Status: In 2006, implemented a multinational peacekeeping exercise for ECOWAS countries. Type of support provided, by region: Africa: Support to peace operations training centers; Status: Provide computer and software equipment to peace operations training centers in Ghana, Kenya, and Mali. Support also is planned for Nigeria in fiscal year 2008. Type of support provided, by region: Africa: Support equipment depots; Status: Supporting an ECOWAS motor pool depot with equipment refurbishment capability located in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Provided equipment to support AU deployments to Sudan. Type of support provided, by region: Africa: Support of AU facility; Status: Provided mechanical and electrical supplies for renovation of the AU situation room and computer equipment and furniture to the AU strategic planning cell. Type of support provided, by region: Asia: Support for a communications system among training centers in the region; Status: Funds have been expended to purchase equipment for centers in Bangladesh, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand to support a regional communication system for collaboration among peace support operations training centers. Plans are in place to add Malaysia. The network is not yet operational. Type of support provided, by region: Asia: Multinational peacekeeping exercises; Status: Supported three multinational peacekeeping capstone exercises: two in Mongolia and one in Bangladesh. Type of support provided, by region: Asia: Peace operations training centers; Status: Provided funds to refurbish centers in Mongolia and Indonesia. Additional support is planned for Bangladesh, Indonesia, Mongolia, Pakistan, and Thailand. Type of support provided, by region: Asia: Training instructors to continue peacekeeping training; Status: Trained 266 instructors. Type of support provided, by region: Europe: Peace operations training centers; Status: Supported U.S. uniformed instructor position at center in Bosnia and provided funds to refurbish and provide equipment to center in Ukraine. Type of support provided, by region: Europe: Support for regional organizations; Status: Provided communications equipment and contractor support to the South Eastern European Brigade for deployment to Afghanistan. Type of support provided, by region: Europe: Training instructors to continue peacekeeping training; Status: Trained 26 instructors. Type of support provided, by region: South and Central America: Peace operations training Centers; Status: Provided funds to refurbish center in Guatemala. Type of support provided, by region: South and Central America: Training instructors to continue peacekeeping training; Status: Trained 43 instructors. Type of support provided, by region: Near East: Support to peace operations training centers; Status: Plans to provide funds to peacekeeping training center in Jordan to refurbish and supply computer equipment. Type of support provided, by region: Central Asia: No activities to build skills and infrastructure as of April 2008; Status: [Empty]. Source: GAO analysis of Department of State funding data and reporting documents. [End of table] [End of section] Appendix VII: Comments from the Department of State: Note: GAO comments supplementing those in the report text appear at the end of this appendix. United States Department of State: Assistant Secretary for Resource Management and Chief Financial Officer: Washington, D.C. 20520: Ms. Jacquelyn Williams-Bridgers: Managing Director: International Affairs and Trade: Government Accountability Office: 441 G Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20548-0001: June 18, 2008: Dear Ms. Williams-Bridgers: We appreciate the opportunity to review your draft report, "Peacekeeping: Thousands Trained but U.S. is Unlikely to Complete All Activities by 2010 and Some Improvements Are Needed," GAO Job Code 320519. The enclosed Department of State comments are provided for incorporation with this letter as an appendix to the final report. If you have any questions concerning this response, please contact David Potter, Wing Commander, Bureau of Political and Military Affairs at (202) 647-1355. Sincerely, Signed by: Brafrod R. Higgins: cc: GAO - Monica Brym: PM - Stephen Mull: State/OIG - Mark Duda: U.S. Department of State Comments on GAO Draft Report: Peacekeeping: Thousands Trained but U.S. is Unlikely to Complete All Activities by 2010 and Some Improvements Are Needed (GAO-08-754, GAO Code 320519): The Department of State appreciates the opportunity to review and comment on the Government Accountability Office draft Report entitled, "Thousands Trained but U.S. is Unlikely to Complete All Activities by 2010 and Some Improvements Are Needed." The Department believes, contrary to the findings of the report, that it is, in fact, on track to meet the objectives of the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) by 2010; and that with over 35,000 peacekeepers deployed to 18 peacekeeping operations around the world, GPOI has already demonstrated significant success, forestalled the loss of life, prevented suffering, and safeguarded property. [See comment1] In outlining the rationale for this perspective, this response will address each of GPOI's seven objectives, provide our position on the draft Report's recommendations, which for the most part we are already fulfilling, and provide additional comments where warranted. We will highlight areas where our analysis differs from that of the GAO and acknowledge areas in the report that highlight the need for improvement in certain aspects of GPOI implementation. Achievement of GPOI Objectives: Contrary to the title of the GAO report, we assess that the GPOI objectives will be achieved under current conditions and within projected resource levels. The basis for this assessment is presented below. Our analysis first presents the objectives as stated on page 6 of the draft GAO report, contrasts that wording with the actual objectives of the GPOI Strategy, and then describes actual and/or projected achievements by objective. [See comment 2] Objective 1: Draft GAO Report - "train and, when appropriate, equip 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010;" GPOI Strategy - "Train and, as appropriate, equip at least 75,000 peacekeepers worldwide, with an emphasis on Africa, from FY 2005-2010, to increase global capacity to participate in peace operations." Analysis - We have modeled the projected training under three sets of assumptions. Our most conservative projection is based on the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) Program's minimum contracted throughput of 1,000 trainees per month with other programs operating at a throughput of 75 percent of the current training rate. This set of conditions will result in achievement of the 75,000 peacekeeper objective in the final quarter of 2010. More realistic projections using ACOTA's current throughput and more representative training rates for other programs suggest the objective will be achieved in the third quarter of 2010. The GAO report provides no data to the contrary. [See comment 3] Objective 2: Draft GAO Report - "support the Italian government's efforts to establish an international center to train stability police forces that would then participate in peacekeeping operations;" GPOI Strategy - "Provide support to the international Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU) in Italy to increase the capabilities and interoperability of stability police to participate in peace operations." Analysis - The GPOI program has contributed $10.5M to COESPU in Vicenza, Italy, and will soon provide an additional $4.5M. As of May 31, 2008, this institution has trained 1,399 stability police members from 26 countries at the High Level/Senior Officers Course and the Middle Managers Course. Each course provides their respective training audiences with the skills to lead, command, and manage formed police units participating in peace support operations. [See comment 4] Objective 3: Draft GAO Report - "develop a program to procure and store peace operations equipment to facilitate the equipment's quick mobilization for peace operations;" GPOI Strategy - "Develop a cached equipment program to procure and warehouse equipment for use in peace operations anywhere around the globe." Analysis -With a total $42.8M investment, the GPOI program has established a system for storing and distributing equipment that has been used successfully by seven GPOI partners in peace operations in Darfur, Somalia, Southern Sudan, Afghanistan, and Haiti. Over $9M has been expended to refurbish; re-stock with vehicles, communications equipment, generators, and water purification units; and manage an equipment depot in Sierra Leone. A further $33.8M has been obligated to procure other equipment such as personal protective gear, vehicles and vehicle parts, tactical radios, medical trauma kits, field rations, and other supplies. Objective 4: Draft GAO Report -"develop a transportation and logistics support system to deploy and sustain peacekeeping in the field;" GPOI Strategy - "Work with other G8 members to develop a globally- oriented transportation and logistics support arrangement (TLSA) to help provide transportation for deploying peacekeepers and logistics support to sustain units in the field." Analysis -The United States is leading the G8 activity with regard to this initiative, which came out of the G8's Sea Island Action Plan of 2004. The United States established a virtual donors' coordination mechanism to enable deploying nations' requests for Transportation and Logistics Support Arrangement (TLSA) assistance to be shared among TLSA participants, which includes the United States and four other G8 member nations. In response to requests for transportation and logistics support, the USG has provided $13M to nations deploying to the African Union Mission in Darfur, Sudan (AMIS), the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), and the United Nations Interim Forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL). [See comment 5] Objective 5: Draft GAO Report - "enhance the capacity of regional and sub-regional organizations for peace operations;" GPOI Strategy - "Enhance the capacity of regional and sub-regional organizations to train for, plan, prepare for, manage, conduct, obtain, and sustain lessons-learned from peace operations by providing technical assistance, training, and material support; and, support institutions and activities which offer these capabilities to a regional audience." Analysis - The draft GAO Report notes that GPOI has conducted activities to improve the capabilities of regional organizations to plan, train for, and execute peacekeeping missions. Specifically, they cite training activities for ECOWAS and units from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua that will comprise the multinational CFAC brigade. Globally, GPOI is supporting or has supported 18 peace operations training centers, 7 peace support operations collaboration centers, 7 multinational peacekeeping exercises, 3 technical advisors, and provided training for the peacekeeping mission planning and management staffs of two regional organizations. As a result of these and other programs, events, and activities, the peacekeeping-related capabilities of the affected regional organizations and institutions have been improved. [See comment 6] Objective 6: Draft GAO Report -"provide a worldwide clearinghouse function for GPOI- related activities in Africa and globally." GPOI Strategy - "Create a `clearinghouse' function to exchange information and coordinate G8 efforts to enhance peace operations training and exercises in Africa; and continue to provide support to subsequent clearinghouse initiatives, including globally-oriented activities, throughout the life of the G8's Action Plan for Expanding Global Capability for Peace Support Operations." Analysis - Africa Clearinghouse meetings were conducted in 2004, 2006, 2007, and 2008, with GPOI hosting the 2004 inaugural meeting in Washington. Clearinghouse meetings are now firmly established as an event within the annual cycle of G8 meetings. The United States initiated and hosted a G8++ Global Clearinghouse in 2007 and representatives from 32 countries concluded that the event was of value and should be continued. The Clearinghouse meetings have raised the awareness of all participants regarding the breadth and depth of peacekeeping capacity building programs and are helping to reduce potential redundancies and make individual country programs more complementary. Objective 7: Draft GAO Report - "conduct activities that support and assist partners in achieving self-sufficiency and maintaining the proficiencies gained from GPOI." GPOI Strategy - "Conduct sustainment/self-sufficiency activities in support of the objectives above with a focus on assisting Partners to sustain proficiencies gained in training programs." Analysis - The GPOI strategy contains a model showing the requirements to achieve and maintain operational effectiveness in peace operations. The model recognizes that a number of elements are solely within the purview of national governments and other organizations. Every activity funded through GPOI can be linked directly or indirectly to one of the elements within that model, therein demonstrating that GPOI activities do support and assist in achieving self-sufficiency and maintaining proficiencies. Department Response to Draft Report Recommendations: The GAO Report recommends the Secretary of State take the following six actions and then, in consultation with DoD, take two additional actions: Recommendation 1: "Work in consultation with DoD to assist Italy in staffing the key unfilled positions at COESPU to better evaluate progress made and monitor results." State Response: Concur. We were, prior to the GAO investigation, already working with COESPU and the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) to staff a position at the training facility to address evaluation and monitoring. Recommendation 2: "Monitor implementation of new procedures to account for delivery and transfer of non-lethal training equipment to partner countries on an ongoing basis." State Response: Concur. Three primary supply chains are used for the delivery of non-lethal training equipment to partner countries: Foreign Military Sales (FMS) - implemented through the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA); commercial acquisition - implemented through the State Department's Office of Acquisition Management's regional procurement support offices (RPSO); and commercial acquisition - implemented through ACOTA. Procedural changes, including the use of joint inventories, improved electronic record keeping, and the requirement for national representatives to sign U.S. Government acquisition documentation, are being implemented in each of these supply chains to assure more robust accountability. Additional staff personnel are also being contracted to ACOTA, U.S. Southern Command, and State to apply greater scrutiny in this area. It should be noted that State's GPOI Evaluation Team identified the equipment accountability shortfall prior to the GAO's investigation of the GPOI Program. This same team, through its existing procedures for monitoring program achievement, will monitor the effectiveness of the reforms being implemented. Recommendation 3: "Provide additional guidance to U.S. missions to help the United States and Italy collect data on the training and deployment activities of COESPU graduates in their home countries." State Response: Concur. GPOI has been examining mechanisms to improve data collection on the activities of COESPU graduates and is developing a systematic approach for the gathering of post-training data. To that end, and following consultations with the Italian MFA and COESPU, State has agreed to use GPOI funds to staff one contractor at the training facility to develop an alumni database, outreach materials for COESPU graduates, and tracking mechanisms. In addition, State is examining ways to strengthen diplomatic outreach to COESPU partner countries to request ongoing feedback from partners regarding the performance and activities of their COESPU graduates. Guidance for identifying responsibilities will be provided to the Posts in our COESPU partner countries once the contractor is in place at COESPU and the tracking mechanisms have been established. Recommendation 4: "Develop, in consultation with DoD, a method for evaluating the quality of training and measuring the proficiency of trainees in critical skills." State Response: These methods already exist. Evaluation of trainee proficiency and the quality of training are conducted at all training events. These evaluations occur at multiple levels. Lead trainers and mentors, both active duty military and/or U.S. military veterans with 20 to 30 years experience constitute the core of GPOI training and evaluation programs. The lead trainers conduct performance-oriented training and remedial training; evaluate individual soldier proficiencies and unit collective performance. The mentors, in turn, serve to coach the trainers and render assessments on the overall quality of the training. Supporting these individuals in conducting the evaluation, particularly at the GPOI-funded United Nations-certified specialist courses, are subject matter experts drawn from the broader international community. GPOI managers from State and Defense evaluate the overall effectiveness of the broader GPOI program. One of GPOI's strengths has been its ability to tailor the program of instruction to the desires and capabilities of the recipient nation. This allows the GPOI partner to receive training at an appropriate level, but does not mean that all nations are assessed to be equally competent at the completion of training events. Units from various countries participating in a multilateral peacekeeping operation will begin the exercise with varying levels of proficiency and, while all will benefit from the experience, it is not expected that all will have exactly the same level of proficiency at the end. The evaluation data maintained by State and the implementing agent will accurately indicate the level of proficiency. To provide greater standardization, we will be developing Military Task Lists (MTLs) and associated training standards to specify tasks, conditions, and standards for different types of military units participating in peacekeeping operations. The MTLs will form the basis from which training plans are developed and trainees assessed. A Statement of Work to develop the MTLs and training standards has been written, and requires a joint State and Defense steering board to oversee the development. Another area where we seek to improve is in reviewing post-training proficiency. Currently, we collect formal and anecdotal reports from a variety of sources. Our process also includes after-action reports on UN peacekeeping operations and from the regional entities that field peacekeeping operations such as the African Union (AU) or ECOWAS. However, we recognize the need to do more and to do it in a systematic manner. We are considering greater use of technology, such as the ACOTA website and the Peace Support Operations Collaboration Center (PSOCC) network, to capture informal field and host nation anecdotes, field trips to mission areas, and post-training surveys. While we desire rigor in the information collected on the performance of GPOI-trained personnel when they deploy on operations or after they return to their home country, we recognize that any collection process is dependent, in part, on the cooperation of the host country, regional organization, or the UN. Recommendation 5: "Ensure that the evaluations of contractor performance in Africa are properly recorded into the contractor performance system as required by agency regulations." State Response: Concur. Although evaluation data has been collected, the data has yet to be entered into State's contracting databases. With the imminent arrival of additional staff for State's Office of Acquisition Management (AQM), we expect that evaluation data to be loaded shortly. Recommendation 6: "Develop a system for monitoring the vetting activities for all GPOI training and ensure that all individuals in composite units are vetted for human rights violations, as required by State policy." State Response: Partially Concur. State's policy on vetting composite units has been published and distributed. While there were shortcomings when the process was first implemented, we believe that they have been remedied and that the process is effective in identifying and preventing any potential recipients from receiving training where there is credible evidence that they have committed gross violations of human rights. [See comment 8] In examining the section of the draft GAO Report that underpins this recommendation, we note that State's policy on vetting composite units changed in April 2007. At that time, the seven composite units referred to on pages 5 and 35 of the draft Report were already in the administrative pipeline for training (some of which was conducted in April 2007). The failure to vet in accordance with the updated policy should be considered as a consequence of the change in policy, a policy change which in itself should be taken as an indicator of State's commitment to ensure full compliance with this requirement. Notwithstanding the above, the State is fully committed to compliance with the Leahy Law and will undertake regularly to remind those U.S. Government elements responsible for implementing GPOI of their obligations and responsibilities. Recommendation 7: "In consultation with DoD, assess estimated resources and timeframes needed to complete peacekeeping and infrastructure activities in Africa by 2010." State Response: Partially Concur. The GPOI Strategy objectives are a mixture of quantifiable targets and qualitative objectives that seek to improve the status quo. The quantifiable targets will be met and the status quo will be improved upon in the qualitative areas referred to in GPOI's objectives. ACOTA, GPOI's primary activity in Africa, regularly updates its Vision, Mission, and Strategy Plan to assess the resources and timelines needed to continue peacekeeper training programs for as long as they will be required by the AU, Africa's regional economic communities, and the continent's troop contributing countries. Because African militaries are conscript armies, personnel at the enlisted levels often serve for limited periods of time, thus requiring that new and refresher training be conducted over the long term. In keeping with this requirement, ACOTA maintains a highly detailed program plan that lists all the requirements and resources pertaining to the annual and long-term commitments that it has entered into on a bilateral and multilateral basis, or in support of U.S. policy goals and objectives. This document identifies the annual requirements needed to conduct the ACOTA program in Africa at its optimum levels, and also allows for prioritization and management of activities when budgetary constraints restrict the full implementation of the program plan. Recommendation 8: "In consultation with DoD, ensure that any plans for extending GPOI activities beyond 2010 identify sufficient resources for developing long-term peacekeeping skills and infrastructure in Africa." State Response: Concur. While the goals of GPOI will be met with the resources allocated for FY 2005-2009, the demand for international peacekeeping continues to grow. Accordingly, the Administration is exploring a proposal which would see GPOI-like activities continue across the globe, to include developing additional long-term peacekeeping skills and infrastructure in Africa. Additional Comments: PART Score and Data Reliability: GPOI achieved a score of 91.5 percent and a rating of "effective" (the highest of five possible ratings) by the Office of Management and Budget's 2007 Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART). We consider this external rating a significant endorsement of GPOI's success and that which deserves mention in the GAO Report. As the PART considered, inter alia, the verifiability and auditability of data collected in support of Program outcomes, we consider it an endorsement of the data presented in this response. Additionally, the draft GAO Report states on page 4 that "We determined that the data provided by State and DoD were sufficiently reliable for the purposes of our review." Budget Projections: GPOI's actual and projected achievements have occurred with increased efficiencies, allowing us to achieve the goals with an overall funding level projected at $480M over the life of the program. (This is a projection because the final year's allocation has not been established.) This amount will be well below the original announced commitment to GPOI of $660M over five years. Attribution of Activities against GPOI Objectives: The template for activity proposals submitted as part of the budgetary allocation development process requires GPOI implementing agencies to identify which GPOI objectives the proposed activity would support. Many proposals contribute towards two or three objectives, a fact further reflected in the matrix of annual allocations approved by the GPOI Coordinating Committee. In reviewing achievements against the seven GPOI objectives, the draft GAO Report rates performance by region. This methodology attributes each GPOI activity to a single GPOI objective instead of acknowledging the full spectrum of benefits that any single activity may generate. One example of the problems that arise when a GPOI activity is linked to only one objective is the issue of nations deploying trainers on peace support operations. It is inaccurate to suggest that a nation is not capitalizing on the GPOI investment by deploying trainers on operations. Operational experience provides trainers with the opportunity to reinforce the knowledge and skills that enable them to act as a force multiplier for their nation in a practical setting that no training activity can fully simulate. Other Forms of Security Assistance/Foreign Aid in Africa: In addition to allocating each GPOI activity to only one GPOI objective, the draft GAO Report's assessment also does not take into account other forms of U.S. and non-U.S. assistance in Africa. GPOI is not the only USG program providing foreign assistance for peacekeeping, nor is the United States the only country that provides foreign assistance for peacekeeping in Africa. GPOI resource allocations are based on regional program plans where implementers take into account partner/regional needs, U.S. security objectives, and other U.S./international programs. GPOI implementers are cognizant of concurrent efforts, and design their programs accordingly. For example, the regional peace operations training centers in Mali, Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya receive a greater portion of their operating funds from non- U.S. sources, requiring GPOI to contribute only a partial amount of the total costs of those efforts. The European Union, through the Reinforcement of African Peacekeeping Capabilities Program (RECAMP), and the U.S. Combatant Commands provide regional exercise opportunities that reduce the need to spend GPOI funds on capstone exercises (ACOTA has only conducted one regional exercise). Human Rights: The USG invites countries to participate in GPOI following an assessment against six criteria listed in the GPOI Strategy. One criterion is the country's human rights record. The assessment is conducted in an interagency forum and involves thoughtful consideration of all available information. Separately, individuals or units nominated to participate in GPOI-funded training activities undergo vetting for credible allegations of gross human rights abuses. This vetting demands that there be an absence of credible evidence against the individual or unit prior to the commencement of training. The draft GAO Report seeks to draw parallels between these two processes. However, there is a significant difference between systemic human rights abuses by the security forces of a nation and allegations of abuse by an individual or single unit. The alleged actions of a small group should not, in and of themselves, result in the cessation of GPOI activities with the non-implicated security forces of that country. It is also important to note that all GPOI-funded training contains instruction on human rights. The following are GAO's responses to the Department of State's letter dated June 18, 2008. GAO Comments: 1. State asserts that GPOI is on track to meet its objectives with over 35,000 peacekeepers deployed to 18 peacekeeping operations. We disagree that 35,000 peacekeepers have deployed to 18 missions with the training or support of GPOI. State's assertion conflicts with GPOI evaluation team data that identified 22,000 peacekeepers trained by GPOI that deployed to 12 UN or AU missions, as well as other missions not supported by the UN or AU, as of April 2008. State's statistics include peacekeepers GPOI trained that have not deployed, supported but not trained by GPOI, or troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan (non-UN missions). Appendix IV provides additional information on the peacekeeper deployments of GPOI partners. 2. State asserts that GPOI objectives will be achieved under the current conditions and within projected resource levels. We disagree with this assessment because according to State's own training projections it is not likely to train 75,000 military peacekeepers by 2010, faces delays in providing support of nonlethal equipment to deployed peacekeepers, and is unlikely to complete planned skills and infrastructure activities in Africa by 2010. In addition, State has not provided additional support for requested staff positions at COESPU that would facilitate the evaluation of progress made at COESPU. 3. State now projects that GPOI will train 75,000 peacekeepers by the third quarter of 2010 based on new training rates and asserts that we do not provide a realistic projection. We were unable to validate this information. As of April 2008, the number of military peacekeepers trained is lower than the target number needed to meet the goal of 75,000 by the end of 2010. As recently as May 2008, officials from the GPOI office in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs and its GPOI evaluation team indicated that slow expenditure rates related to training rates would delay their efforts to reach the goal by 2010. Accordingly, we are unable to validate State's new projections provided in its comments to this report. 4. State asserts that it has contributed $10.5 million to COESPU and plans to provide an additional $4.5 million. We disagree that this is a contribution already provided to COESPU. State has obligated $15 million for COESPU, which includes the $10.5 million and $4.5 million, but has only provided $9 million of that amount to COESPU, according to State funding data identifying expenditures as of April 2008. 5. State has stated that the United States established a virtual donors' coordination mechanism to enable deploying nations to facilitate donor assistance in transportation and logistics support. We agree that a communication system has been established, however, we note that the mechanism for facilitating this support is an e-mail system. We also note that the system was established in the fall of 2007 and that, as of April 2008, only one request had been communicated by State to donors through this system, according to the State officials responsible for this system. 6. State presents information on a number of activities that it asserts were conducted under GPOI to improve the capabilities of regional organizations to plan, train for, and execute peacekeeping missions. We disagree that GPOI has conducted all of these activities and believe that the activities listed in State's comment include a combination of planned and completed activities. In appendix VI we have presented the GPOI activities that have been completed to build skills and infrastructure for peacekeeping in support of the GPOI objective to assist partners in achieving self-sufficiency and maintaining GPOI proficiencies. The information we have presented was obtained from expenditure information and data provided by the GPOI assessment team and GPOI program office. To confirm activities that were completed as of April 2008, we crosschecked reported information by the GPOI program with GPOI program implementers responsible for implementing these activities, including the Africa Bureau and its ACOTA program, and U.S. African, Pacific, and Southern Commands. 7. State asserts that methods already exist for evaluating the quality of training and measuring the proficiency of trainees in critical skills. We disagree that these methods address our recommendation. State has not developed military task lists and associated training that can be applied at all GPOI training sites, although the GPOI strategy in 2006 identified the need for the development of military task lists and related military training standards to contribute to standardization, interoperability, and sustainability, and to ensure the proper use of resources. The strategy also indicated that developing such standards would help efforts to evaluate the overall effectiveness of GPOI training programs, events, and activities. We assert that there is value in evaluating the performance of trainees, in the areas where there are consistencies in the training, against a standard level of proficiency in the skills taught during their training, in order to identify the quality of training provided across the program and to identify the proficiency of trained troops program- wide. We modified the recommendation to clarify the need for GPOI-wide standards to provide program managers with the ability to measure proficiency of GPOI-trained troops program-wide and in accordance with the commitments made in the GPOI strategy. 8. State asserts that its process for vetting composite units to prevent potential recipients from receiving training where there is credible evidence of committed gross violations of human rights is effective and that our findings on the vetting of composite units trained under GPOI are unfairly applied against an updated agency policy on vetting composite units. We disagree. The seven composite units we identify in this report were vetted and received training after the policy change in April 2007. We identified these units in our review of vetting records provided by State's ACOTA office and training rosters of individuals trained provided by State's GPOI evaluation team. According to the data provided by State, three composite units from Niger received training in August 2007 and November-December 2007, one composite unit from Nigeria received training in September-October 2007, and three composite units from Uganda received training in July 2007. Records for these units indicate that vetting was completed between June 2007 and November 2007. [End of section] Appendix VIII: Comments from the Department of Defense: Office Of The Assistant Secretary Of Defense: Global Security Affairs: 2900 Defense Pentagon: Washington, D.C. 20301-2900: Mr. Joseph A. Christoff: Director, International Affairs and Trade: U.S. Government Accountability Office: 441 G Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20548: Dear Mr. Christoff: The Department of Defense (DoD) supports the intent of the Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative (GPOI), recognizes the increasing demand for trained peacekeepers, and supports the efforts of the Department of State in executing the program. DoD appreciates the opportunity to review and comment on the Government Accountability Office draft report, entitled "Peacekeeping: Thousands Trained but U.S. is Unlikely to Complete All Activities by 2010 and Some Improvements Are Needed," dated May 22, 2008. DoD believes that improvements in GPOI are needed. Recommendation 1: The GAO recommended that the Secretary of State work in consultation with DoD to assist Italy in staffing the key unfilled positions at Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU) to better evaluate progress made and monitor results. (p. 37/GAO Draft Report) DOD Response: Partially concur - The Department of State and DoD should encourage COESPU to better evaluate progress and monitor results. DoD has placed a U.S. military liaison at COSEPU, and the Department of State should work with DoD and Italy to validate any personnel shortfalls and fill positions that result from this process. Recommendation 2: The GAO recommended that the Secretary of State develop in consultation with DoD, a method for evaluating the quality of training and measuring the proficiency of trainees in critical skills. (p. 37/GAO Draft Report) DOD Response: Partially concur - Some GPOI training events are evaluated, however there is room for greater standardization and more comprehensive analysis of post-training performance. Recommendation 3: The GAO recommended that the Secretary of State in consultation with DoD assess estimated resources and timeframes needed to complete peacekeeping skills and infrastructure activities in Africa by 2010. (p. 38/GAO Draft Report) DOD Response: Partially concur - DoD agrees with the recommendation to assess resources and timeframes required to achieve GPOI objectives in Africa. However, DoD would like to see this effort applied to all regions engaged by the GPOI program. Recommendation 4: The GAO recommended that the Secretary of State in consultation with DoD ensure that any plans for extending Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) activities beyond 2010 identify sufficient resources for developing long-term peacekeeping skills and infrastructure in Africa. (p. 38/GAO Draft Report) DOD Response: Concur - State should closely consult with DoD to ensure that resources provided are sufficient to meet the requirements of the extended program. My points of contact for this memorandum are COL Steve Whitmarsh, 703- 602-5287, and Ms. Kelly Waud, 703-602-5298. Signed by: Greg Gross: Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense: Partnership Strategy: [End of section] Appendix IX: GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments: GAO Contact: Joseph A. Christoff, (202) 512-8979 or christoffj@gao.gov: Staff Acknowledgements: Key contributors to this report include Audrey Solis, Assistant Director; Monica Brym; Justin Monroe; and Diahanna Post. Technical assistance was provided by Ashley Alley, Johana Ayers, Joseph Brown, Lynn Cothern, Barry Deweese, Nisha Hazra, Chris Kunitz, Isidro Gomez, Matthew Reilly, Elizabeth Repko, Ronald Schwenn, Jay Smale, Adrienne Spahr, Barbara Steel-Lowney, Laverne Tharpes, and Heather Whitehead. [End of section] Footnotes: [1] In addition, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, regional organizations led 33 peacekeeping operations in 2007. [2] G8 members are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. [3] In this report, we refer to two types of peacekeepers: military peacekeepers and stability police. We have defined stability police as police whose duties bridge the gap between military troops and civilian police in peace operations. The United States does not directly train stability police for peacekeeping missions. The Departments of State and Defense provide financial and personnel resources to support the Italian Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units, which trains instructors of stability police units for peacekeeping missions. [4] State's and DOD's plans include funding activities for GPOI through fiscal year 2009. [5] National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, Pub.L. 110- 181 1211, 122 Stat. 369 (Jan. 28, 2008). [6] We have categorized the seven objectives of the program under three key program goals. [7] The program provides only nonlethal equipment for training or to support deployments to peacekeeping mission. [8] For the goal of building peacekeeping skills and infrastructure, we have included activities to enhance the ability of countries to conduct training for their own peacekeeping missions and improve the capabilities of regional organizations to plan, train for, and execute peacekeeping missions. [9] The ACOTA program was established in 1997 under African Crisis Response Initiative and focuses on field and staff training and exercises for African battalions and multinational force staffs. ACOTA continues to operate within the scope of GPOI. From 1997 to 2004, the EIPC program provided support to 31 countries to develop their institutional capacity to provide military units for peacekeeping and similar multinational operations and to promote interoperability. [10] In this report, we use "spent" to refer to expended funds. [11] For example, Argentine peacekeeping instructors provide trainers to Central America's peacekeeping training school in Coban, Guatemala. [12] The Carabinieri are the Italian National Force that has both military and police authority. [13] Stability police units bridge the gap between military troops and civilian police in peace operations. [14] The program provides only nonlethal equipment for training or to support deployments to peacekeeping mission. [15] State obligated $10.5 million in fiscal year 2005 funds for COESPU activities. State officials expect to obligate an additional $4.5 million of fiscal year 2005 GPOI funds by spring 2008. GPOI funds cover about half of training and program expenses at COESPU, according to U.S. officials in Italy. [16] This equipment depot is currently run jointly by the United States and ECOWAS. The 15 members of ECOWAS are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinee, Guinee Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togolese Republic. [17] Of the funds expended in Africa, 59 percent was spent on training and training equipment and 29 percent on deployment assistance. [18] GPOI provides funding for the nonsalary costs of the U.S. European Command liaison officer position in Bosnia. [19] We identified a limitation in the data on deployments of trained peacekeepers. State is not able to obtain the individual names of those who deploy to compare with the rosters of those trained under GPOI. However, based on the fact that State can identify which of the units trained under GPOI have deployed, and that any individual who joins the peacekeeping unit subsequent to its training by GPOI may receive additional training from his or her unit officers, we determined that the data on military peacekeepers deployed were sufficiently reliable for the purposes of reporting the deployments of GPOI-trained peacekeeping. [20] The intent of the training is to provide units with the skills to function at the level of a military battalion unit in a peacekeeping mission. [21] Five additional countries participated in GPOI training, but GPOI funds were not used to pay for their training. [22] Basic training in military skills is the responsibility of the partner nation. [23] GPOI does not provide bullets or lethal weapons used by troops during training. [24] The ACOTA office is comprised of nine contractor employees and one federal employee, according to a State official. [25] State regulations require that past performance must be evaluated, recorded, and entered electronically into the contractor performance system, which is a computer database maintained by the National Institutes of Health (48 C.F.R. 42.1502, 42.1503; 48 C.F.R. 642.1503- 70). [26] One of these countries participated in military peacekeeper training funded by GPOI in Mongolia, but is not a GPOI partner and paid for the costs associated with attending the training exercise, according to agency documents. [27] The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008 made permanent the following requirement: "No assistance shall be furnished under this Act or the Arms Export Control Act to any unit of the security forces of a foreign country if the Secretary of State has credible evidence that such unit has committed gross violations of human rights." The prohibitions do not apply if the Secretary determines and reports to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations that the government of such country is taking effective measures to bring the responsible members of the security forces unit to justice (22 U.S.C. 2378d). A similar provision has appeared in prior foreign operations appropriations acts. [28] In May 2008, State officials informed us that Mauritania had been added as a new GPOI country. We did not assess if this country meets the criteria for partnership with GPOI. [29] With the recent election of a new government in Thailand, State expects to resume activities once U.S. prohibitions on security assistance are lifted. [30] These countries were Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Cambodia, Fiji, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Honduras, and Paraguay. [31] This was the case for Honduras, Cameroon, Mozambique, and Zambia. [32] These 14 countries are Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cameroon, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Zambia. [33] Composite units are defined as units in which individuals are temporarily drawn together from already-established units to form a new unit. [34] Section 505 agreements prohibit the furnishing of defense articles or related services or training on a grant basis unless the country agrees that it will not use the defense articles or training for purposes other than those for which furnished. [35] G8 members are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. [36] These countries include Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Chile, France, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, and Uruguay. [37] We identified a limitation in the data on deployments of trained peacekeepers. State is not able to obtain the individual names of those who deploy to compare with the rosters of those trained under GPOI. However, based on the fact that State can identify which of the units trained under GPOI have deployed, and that any individual who joins the peacekeeping unit subsequent to its training by GPOI may receive additional training from his or her unit officers, we determined that the data on military peacekeepers deployed were sufficiently reliable for the purposes of reporting the deployments of GPOI-trained peacekeepers. [38] An additional 572 troops were trained or received equipment for deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. [End of section] GAO's Mission: The Government Accountability Office, the audit, evaluation and investigative arm of Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional responsibilities and to help improve the performance and accountability of the federal government for the American people. GAO examines the use of public funds; evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses, recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO's commitment to good government is reflected in its core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability. Obtaining Copies of GAO Reports and Testimony: The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no cost is through GAO's Web site [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov]. 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