ACORN

Federal Funding and Monitoring [Reissued on June 17, 2011] Gao ID: GAO-11-484 June 14, 2011

The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) was established in 1970 to advocate for low-income families. Allegations of voter registration fraud and videotapes of questionable behavior by ACORN employees raised concerns about ACORN, and Congress passed fiscal year 2010 laws prohibiting federal funds from being awarded to ACORN and ACORN related organizations. GAO was asked to report on these organizations, including (1) how much federal funding was awarded to them for fiscal years 2005 through 2009 and the purpose of the funding, (2) the extent to which federal agencies' monitoring of these awards detected issues identified by audits, (3) the nature and results of any federal investigations or prosecutions conducted of these organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009, and (4) how federal agencies implemented provisions prohibiting the award of funds. Among other things, GAO identified awards to ACORN or potentially related organizations by 31 federal agencies and audits of such awards; documentation of related investigations and cases; and actions to implement funding restrictions by the 27 agencies in our review subject to them.

Seventeen of the 31 agencies identified more than $48 million--$44.6 million in federal grants and at least $3.8 million in subawards (grants and contracts awarded by federal grantees)--to ACORN or potentially related organizations, primarily for housing-related purposes, during fiscal years 2005 through 2009. Agencies were not required to collect data on subawards; consequently, agencies were limited in their ability to identify all funding they provided to ACORN or potentially related organizations through subawards. Agencies reported that their monitoring of awards to ACORN and potentially related organizations was based primarily on the award amount or available resources and ranged from reviewing progress reports to conducting site visits. We found that agencies' monitoring of these awards generally did not detect issues identified by inspectors general or internal audits. Audits conducted by inspector general offices or the internal audit unit at six of the agencies supplemented agency monitoring and identified issues regarding the organizations' use and documentation of funding--such as lack of proper recording and accounting for how funds were spent--that were not detected by the agency, except in one case. The audits were generally more detailed than agency monitoring. Agency officials said they plan to use the findings of the audits to modify their monitoring processes for future grants, for example by revising monitoring guidance. Of 22 investigations and cases of election and voter registration fraud and wage violations involving ACORN or potentially related organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009, most were closed without prosecution. One of the eight cases and investigations identified by the Department of Justice resulted in guilty pleas by eight defendants to voter registration fraud and seven were closed without action due to insufficient, or a lack of, evidence. The Federal Election Commission (FEC) reported five closed matters; for one, the FEC reached a conciliation agreement with a penalty. Another matter was dismissed, and FEC found no reason to believe the violations occurred for three matters. The Department of Labor identified eight wage and hour disputes, plus one delinquent reporting of required documentation, all of which resulted in an organization complying or agreeing to take corrective measures to comply with the applicable requirements. Twenty-seven of the 31 agencies within the scope of our review were subject to fiscal year 2010 appropriations restrictions on funding to ACORN and certain related organizations, and all took action to comply with the restrictions. Most agencies alerted staff of the restrictions through e-mails, memorandums, or oral communications. Other actions included alerting awardees, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development and National Science Foundation provided guidance on which organizations may fall within the scope of their respective funding restrictions. Eleven agencies reported that they took action to implement the restrictions, at least in part, as a result of our inquiry and subsequent discussions. GAO is not making any recommendations. Nine of the 45 agencies and organizations to which a draft of the report was sent provided technical comments, which GAO incorporated as appropriate.



GAO-11-484, ACORN: Federal Funding and Monitoring [Reissued on June 17, 2011]. This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-11-484 entitled 'ACORN: Federal Funding and Monitoring' which was released on June 14, 2011. This text file was formatted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) to be accessible to users with visual impairments, as part of a longer term project to improve GAO products' accessibility. Every attempt has been made to maintain the structural and data integrity of the original printed product. Accessibility features, such as text descriptions of tables, consecutively numbered footnotes placed at the end of the file, and the text of agency comment letters, are provided but may not exactly duplicate the presentation or format of the printed version. The portable document format (PDF) file is an exact electronic replica of the printed version. We welcome your feedback. Please E-mail your comments regarding the contents or accessibility features of this document to Webmaster@gao.gov. This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further permission from GAO. Because this work may contain copyrighted images or other material, permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately. [This report was revised on June 17, 2011, to correct typographical errors on pages 37 and 47; to update cross-references to tables on pages 33, 41, 45, 49, 52, 59, and 63; and to add a case citation on page 66] United States Government Accountability Office: GAO: June 2011: Report to Congressional Addressees: ACORN: Federal Funding and Monitoring: GAO-11-484: GAO Highlights: Highlights of GAO-11-484, a report to congressional addressees. Why GAO Did This Study: The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) was established in 1970 to advocate for low-income families. Allegations of voter registration fraud and videotapes of questionable behavior by ACORN employees raised concerns about ACORN, and Congress passed fiscal year 2010 laws prohibiting federal funds from being awarded to ACORN and ACORN related organizations. GAO was asked to report on these organizations, including (1) how much federal funding was awarded to them for fiscal years 2005 through 2009 and the purpose of the funding, (2) the extent to which federal agencies‘ monitoring of these awards detected issues identified by audits, (3) the nature and results of any federal investigations or prosecutions conducted of these organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009, and (4) how federal agencies implemented provisions prohibiting the award of funds. Among other things, GAO identified awards to ACORN or potentially related organizations by 31 federal agencies and audits of such awards; documentation of related investigations and cases; and actions to implement funding restrictions by the 27 agencies in our review subject to them. What GAO Found: Seventeen of the 31 agencies identified more than $48 million-”$44.6 million in federal grants and at least $3.8 million in subawards (grants and contracts awarded by federal grantees)-”to ACORN or potentially related organizations, primarily for housing-related purposes, during fiscal years 2005 through 2009. Agencies were not required to collect data on subawards; consequently, agencies were limited in their ability to identify all funding they provided to ACORN or potentially related organizations through subawards. Agencies reported that their monitoring of awards to ACORN and potentially related organizations was based primarily on the award amount or available resources and ranged from reviewing progress reports to conducting site visits. We found that agencies‘ monitoring of these awards generally did not detect issues identified by inspectors general or internal audits. Audits conducted by inspector general offices or the internal audit unit at six of the agencies supplemented agency monitoring and identified issues regarding the organizations‘ use and documentation of funding”-such as lack of proper recording and accounting for how funds were spent”-that were not detected by the agency, except in one case. The audits were generally more detailed than agency monitoring. Agency officials said they plan to use the findings of the audits to modify their monitoring processes for future grants, for example by revising monitoring guidance. Of 22 investigations and cases of election and voter registration fraud and wage violations involving ACORN or potentially related organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009, most were closed without prosecution. One of the eight cases and investigations identified by the Department of Justice resulted in guilty pleas by eight defendants to voter registration fraud and seven were closed without action due to insufficient, or a lack of, evidence. The Federal Election Commission (FEC) reported five closed matters; for one, the FEC reached a conciliation agreement with a penalty. Another matter was dismissed, and FEC found no reason to believe the violations occurred for three matters. The Department of Labor identified eight wage and hour disputes, plus one delinquent reporting of required documentation, all of which resulted in an organization complying or agreeing to take corrective measures to comply with the applicable requirements. Twenty-seven of the 31 agencies within the scope of our review were subject to fiscal year 2010 appropriations restrictions on funding to ACORN and certain related organizations, and all took action to comply with the restrictions. Most agencies alerted staff of the restrictions through e-mails, memorandums, or oral communications. Other actions included alerting awardees, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development and National Science Foundation provided guidance on which organizations may fall within the scope of their respective funding restrictions. Eleven agencies reported that they took action to implement the restrictions, at least in part, as a result of our inquiry and subsequent discussions. What GAO Recommends: GAO is not making any recommendations. Nine of the 45 agencies and organizations to which a draft of the report was sent provided technical comments, which GAO incorporated as appropriate. View [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-484] or key components. For more information, contact Eileen R. Larence at (202) 512-8777 or larencee@gao.gov. [End of section] Contents: Letter: Agencies Reported Awarding More Than $48 Million to ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations from 2005 through 2009: Agencies‘ Monitoring Was Based Primarily on Award Amount or Available Resources; Agencies Plan to Modify Monitoring as a Result of Audit Findings: Twenty-two Federal Investigations of Wage Violations and Voter Registration and Election Fraud Resulted in Guilty Pleas in One Case and One Civil Penalty: All 27 Agencies within the Scope of Our Review That Were Subject to Fiscal Year 2010 ACORN Appropriations Restrictions Have Taken Action to Implement Those Restrictions, Some in Response to Our Inquiries: Agency Comments, Third-Party Views, and Our Evaluation: Appendix I: Objectives, Scope and Methodology: Appendix II: Monitoring Activities of Direct Grant Programs Conducted by Agencies, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Appendix III: Federal Provisions Restricting Funding to ACORN and Related Organizations and Related Court Case: Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Acknowledgments: Tables: Table 1: Direct Awards to ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Table 2: Selected Subawards to ACORN and Potentially Related Organizations, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Table 3: Summary of Audit and DOJ-IG Review Findings Regarding ACORN and Potentially Related Organizations‘ Management of Federal Grant Funds: Table 4: U.S. Attorney‘s Office and FBI Closed Case and Investigations Involving ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations or Their Employees; Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Table 5: FEC Matters Opened from Fiscal Years 2005 to 2009 That Involve ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations: Table 6: DOL Cases and Investigations Opened from Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009 that Involve ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations: Table 7: Actions Agencies Have Taken to Implement Applicable Funding Restrictions[A]: Table 8: Agency Characteristics That Indicate They Could Have Funded ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations: Table 9: ACORN”Family Tree and ACORN Bankruptcy Identified Organizations: Table 10: Indicators of Potential Affiliation with ACORN: Organizations Identified by DUNS Number that Received Federal Funding from Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Table 11: Indicators of Potential Affiliation with ACORN: Organizations Identified other than by DUNS Number that Received Federal Funding from Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Table 12: Indicators of Potential Affiliation with ACORN: Organizations or Their Employees Investigated or Prosecuted by DOJ, FBI, FEC or DOL, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Table 13: Monitoring Activities of Direct Awards Conducted by Agencies, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Table 14: Fiscal Year 2010 Appropriations Act Restrictions on Funding ACORN and Other Entities for 27 of the 31 Agencies Reviewed: Figure: Figure 1: Timeline of Actions Related to ACORN v. United States: [End of section] United States Government Accountability Office: Washington, DC 20548: June 14, 2011: Congressional Requesters: Nonprofit organizations play an important role in providing a wide range of public services. To provide these services, these organizations rely on funding through various sources, including federal grants and contracts. Just as federal agencies are held accountable for the efficient and effective use of taxpayer dollars, so too are nonprofit organizations held accountable for their use of federal funds. The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN)--a nonprofit organization that received federal funds--was established in 1970 as a grassroots organization to advocate for low-income families. By 2009, ACORN's General Counsel reported that ACORN had 500,000 members and had expanded into a national network of organizations involved in the development of affordable housing, foreclosure counseling, and voter registration, among other things. ACORN organizations relied on membership dues and on federal and private foundation funding to support various activities. Voter registration fraud allegations and widely distributed videotapes depicting what appeared to be inappropriate behavior by employees of several local ACORN chapters spurred calls to identify federal funding provided to ACORN and organizations potentially related to it, and for legislation to restrict or eliminate that funding.[Footnote 1] In addition, the inspectors general at five agencies that provided funding to ACORN or potentially related organizations--the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Department of Justice (DOJ), and the Election Assistance Commission (EAC)--as well as NeighborWorks' internal audit unit, initiated ACORN-related reviews. [Footnote 2] Subsequently, Congress passed provisions restricting the funding of ACORN or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, or allied organizations in the fiscal year 2010 continuing resolutions, which were followed by several fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts that prohibited any appropriated funds from being awarded to ACORN and various ACORN- related organizations.[Footnote 3] In addition to the federal funding restrictions, ACORN's General Counsel reported reductions in private foundation funding, and in March 2010 stated that the national ACORN organization would terminate its field operations and close all of its field offices because of the loss of funding, although some of its related organizations were to remain open. ACORN filed for chapter 7 bankruptcy on November 2, 2010.[Footnote 4] The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, directed us to issue a report on funding to ACORN and related organizations within 180 days (by June 14, 2010).[Footnote 5] We also received three request letters from a total of 23 members of Congress asking that we provide information on federal funding provided to ACORN and related organizations and on the monitoring of the use of this funding. A list of the congressional requesters is provided at the end of this report. We combined our work for the mandate and requests to produce a preliminary report on June 14, 2010, on the first three objectives below.[Footnote 6] Our preliminary report identified at least $40 million in federal funding awarded by nine agencies to ACORN and other organizations (that were identified by the Congressional Research Service as possibly related to ACORN). In terms of agency monitoring of the funding, we found that monitoring was based primarily on award amount or available resources, and generally did not identify problems with the funding awarded. In terms of investigations or prosecutions of ACORN or potentially related organizations or their employees, we also described 12 closed cases and investigations reported by the Executive Office of U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and four closed Federal Election Commission (FEC) matters related to ACORN or potentially related organizations. This report includes our final results on these three objectives, as well as a fourth objective for this final report, which was added based on congressional interest: (1) From fiscal years 2005 through 2009, how much funding did federal agencies award to ACORN or any potentially related organizations, and what was the purpose of the funding? (2) To what extent did federal agencies' monitoring of ACORN or potentially related organizations' use of federal funding detect issues identified by inspector general and internal audits? (3) What federal investigations or prosecutions were conducted of ACORN or potentially related organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009, and what were the nature and results of these investigations and prosecutions? (4) How have federal agencies subject to fiscal year 2010 provisions barring the distribution of appropriated funds to ACORN or its affiliates, subsidiaries, or allied organizations implemented those provisions? To conduct our work, we first had to determine which organizations may be related to ACORN as a branch, subsidiary, or affiliate. We consolidated nine lists of potential ACORN organizations that others, including federal agencies and congressional committees, had created. We provided the consolidated list to Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). We selected D&B because it has the most comprehensive information on business entities of any source that we identified, and D&B maintains data on all Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) numbers.[Footnote 7] We asked D&B to consolidate duplicate records into one unique record and identify those that could be matched with a DUNS number. As a result of its analysis, D&B provided us with DUNS numbers associated with organizations on the nine lists. D&B also identified which of these DUNS numbers were associated with a member of the ACORN "family tree"--that is, a branch or subsidiary of ACORN.[Footnote 8] For our first objective, we asked the 31 federal agencies we believe might have provided funding (based on factors such as whether the agency was included in the federal government's grant availability Web site, grants.gov), to identify any grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements awarded directly or as a subaward (subgrant or subcontract) from fiscal years 2005 through 2009 to organizations associated with the complete list of DUNS numbers. We assessed the reliability of agency databases used to search for funding by reviewing agency annual financial statements and agency responses to questions regarding the integrity of those databases. We determined that the databases were reliable for our purposes. For each of the organizations included on the list from D&B that agencies had funded, we conducted additional analysis to determine whether there was a potential affiliation with ACORN.[Footnote 9] Specifically, we looked for five indicators of affiliation--shared address, phone number, bank account, employer identification number, or at least one executive or member of the board of directors in common between the organization and ACORN. These five indicators are data points that relate to various statutory and regulatory tests for determining whether an affiliate or subsidiary relationship exists between entities, the crux of which is the ability of one entity to control the other.[Footnote 10] When reporting on funding to ACORN and potentially related organizations, we included only those organizations that had at least one indicator of affiliation with ACORN, but the presence of any one or more of these indicators does not necessarily mean that there is a control relationship between the entities so as to make them affiliates. Organizations that were on our list of DUNS numbers and were funded, but did not have an indicator of affiliation, were excluded from this report. We did not determine whether the organizations included in this report were actually affiliated with ACORN because sufficient information was not available to make that determination for the various organizations within the scope of our review. Therefore, we refer to these organizations as "potentially related." To address our second objective, we obtained reports that reviewed funding awarded to ACORN or a potentially related organization that were issued by the inspectors general at CPB, DHS, HUD, DOJ, or EAC, or by the internal audit unit of NeighborWorks. We also reviewed these reports and found the conclusions and recommendations drawn in each report to be appropriate based on methodologies used. For each agency where a review was conducted, we analyzed documentation of the agency's monitoring of the funding encompassed by the audits. We also interviewed officials at the six agencies to determine the extent to which the specific monitoring mechanisms applied at each agency captured the issues identified in the audits, the rationale for the monitoring mechanisms the agency applied, and whether the monitoring process would be modified based on the audits. For our third objective, we analyzed information from DOJ--including the FBI and DOJ litigating divisions[Footnote 11]--as well as the 31 agencies and the investigative components of their offices of inspector general regarding any investigations or prosecutions they have conducted of ACORN or potentially related organizations or their employees from fiscal years 2005 through 2009. As with our first objective, for any organizations that agencies reported having been involved in an investigation or prosecution, we determined whether the organizations had any indicators of affiliation with ACORN. Only those organizations that had at least one indicator are included in this report. We assessed the reliability of the data that EOUSA, FBI, DOL, and FEC used to search for the investigations and prosecutions they reported to us, and found the data to be reliable for our purposes. Agencies used name searches to identify cases in their systems, which is not as precise a method of searching as by number, so there is a potential that some cases may have been missed using this method. For our fourth objective, we asked officials representing the 27 out of the 31 agencies within our scope that are subject to fiscal year 2010 appropriations provisions that prohibit funding to ACORN and related organizations to describe and provide documentation of the actions the agencies have taken to implement the provisions. The remaining four of the 31 agencies in our scope--DHS, Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)--were not subject to such provisions. We analyzed actions taken by agencies to implement their specific provisions. Executive agencies are required to establish and maintain systems of accounting and internal controls that reasonably ensure compliance with applicable law; the control activities are established by management of the audited agency.[Footnote 12] We did not make an independent assessment of the sufficiency of processes agencies have in place to restrict funding, as a review of the internal controls in place at 27 agencies (a lengthy and resource intensive process) was not feasible within the scope of this review. In addition, there is no defined list of organizations that agencies are prohibited from funding (to determine if the internal controls were sufficient to prevent these organizations from receiving federal funds). We are not making a determination that any organization named in this report falls within the scope of the funding restrictions. Agencies are responsible for ensuring that they are implementing their applicable appropriations statutes properly.[Footnote 13] Appendix I provides additional detail on our objectives, scope, and methodology. We conducted this performance audit from August 2010 through June 2011 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. Agencies Reported Awarding More Than $48 Million to ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations from 2005 through 2009: Seventeen of the 31 agencies identified a total of approximately $48.4 million--$44.6 million in direct federal grants and $3.8 million in subgrants and subcontracts--awarded to ACORN or potentially related organizations for fiscal years 2005 through 2009, with much of the funding designated for housing-related purposes.[Footnote 13] We identified a total of 73 direct awards and 44 subawards during this period. Of the awardees, ACORN Housing Corporation received the most federal funding, primarily for foreclosure mitigation and housing counseling services. ACORN Housing Corporation received over $25 million from one agency (NeighborWorks) in 2008. Federal funding was also awarded to ACORN and potentially related organizations for other purposes, including operating public radio stations and foreign language programs. For example, the Tides Center received $238,755 from the Department of Education in fiscal year 2008 to teach Chinese and Arabic to high school students from low-income families. Table 1 identifies agency-reported direct federal funding awarded to ACORN or potentially related organizations. Table 1: Direct Awards to ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009 A: Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB): Funded organization: Arkansas Broadcasting Foundation (KABF-FM); Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $37,694; 2006 - $84,801; 2007 - $87,388; 2008 - $77,475; 2009 - $81,250; Program description: Community Services Grant (CSG) Supports radio stations in their general operations and programming. Funded organization: Agape Broadcasting Foundation (KNON-FM); Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $19,508; 2006 - $115,484; 2007 - $110,162; 2008 - $103,839; 2009 - $97,249; Program description: Community Services Grant (CSG) Supports radio stations in their general operations and programming. Funded organization: Arkansas Broadcasting Foundation (KABF-FM); Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $15,000; Program description: Internet Acquisition Grant (IAG) Helps rural and minority radio stations use Web technology to increase services to their listeners. Funded organization: Agape Broadcasting Foundation (KNON-FM); Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $15,000; Program description: Internet Acquisition Grant (IAG) Helps rural and minority radio stations use Web technology to increase services to their listeners. Funded organization: Agape Broadcasting Foundation (KNON-FM); Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2006 - $80,000; Program description: Digital Radio Conversion Fund (DRC) Provides funds to radio stations planning to covert to digital audio transmission. Department of Agriculture (USDA): Agency/office or division: Risk Management Agency (RMA)[B]; Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $100,000[A]; 2006 - $110,111[A]; 2007 - $115,000[A]; Program description: Community Outreach and Assistance Partnership Program; Provides direct marketing tools, technical assistance, and service to a selected group of farmer advocacy organizations. Agency/office or division: Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS); Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2009 - $61,380; Program description: Farmers Market Promotion Program; Promotes the domestic consumption of agricultural commodities by expanding opportunities for direct producer-to-consumer sales. Department of Defense (DOD): Agency/office or division: Army Corps of Engineers; Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $132,785[A]; Program description: Feasibility Study Provides labor and materials to prepare selected marine areas of Puget Sound for analysis of change in near-shore areas. Agency/office or division: National Security Agency (NSA); Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2008 - $119,980; 2008 - $119,980; 2009 - $115,000; 2009 - $115,000; Program description: OneWorld Now! Summer Language Camp and After School Classes Introduces middle and high school students to different languages and motivates continued study of the language and culture. The grants funded studies of Chinese and Arabic. Department of Education (Education): Agency/office or division: Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB): Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $248,000; 2005 - $198,400; 2008 - $238,755; Program description: Fund for the Improvement of Education The grants were congressional earmarks that funded secondary student foreign language instruction in Chinese and Arabic. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS): Agency/office or division: Office of Refugee Settlement; Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2006 - $855,000[C]; Program description: Comprehensive Torture Treatment Services and Capacity Building Project Provides services such as training, consultation, and outreach for agencies, educators, and social service providers who serve refugee/asylum survivors. Also can support specialized and culturally appropriate psychological and medical case management and advocacy for their treatment. Department of Homeland Security (DHS): Agency/office or division: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA); Funded organization: ACORN Institute; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2007 - $450,484; 2008 - $997,482[D]; Program description: Fire Prevention and Safety Program Enhances the safety of the public and firefighters from fire and related hazards. The primary goal is to target high-risk populations and reduce injury and prevent death. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): Agency/office or division: Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD); Funded organization: ACORN Housing Corporation (AHC); Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $527,000[E]; Program description: Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) Provides funds for eligible national and regional non-profit organizations and consortia to purchase home sites and develop or improve the infrastructure for homeowner improvements and volunteer- based homeownership programs for low-income persons and families. Agency/office or division: Federal Housing Administration (FHA); Funded organization: AHC; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $1,197,255; 2005 - $275,000; 2005 - $323,439; 2005 - $78,123; 2006 - $1,821,596; 2007 - $1,628,829; 2008 - $1,623,570; Program description: Housing Counseling Grant Supports the delivery of a wide variety of housing counseling services to homebuyers, homeowners, low-to moderate-income renters, and the homeless. The primary program objectives are to improve financial literacy, expand homeownership opportunities, improve access to affordable housing, and preserve homeownership. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: AHC; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $100,000[A]; 2007 - $100,000[F]; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: Arkansas Community Housing Corporation; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $100,000[A]; 2007 - $99,948; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: New York Agency for Community Affairs (NYACA); Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $99,975; 2008 - $99,427; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: ACORN Community Land Association of LA, Inc.; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $100,000; 2006 - $100,000; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: New Mexico ACORN Fair Housing; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2006 - $99,724; 2007 - $99,757; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: ACORN Associates, Inc.; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2006 - $49,997; 2008 - $99,974[G]; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: American Institute for Social Justice; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $100,000[A]; 2006 - $99,080; 2007 - $99,887; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: American Environmental Justice Project; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2006 - $99,716[H]; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: Missouri Tax Justice Research Project; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $100,000[A]; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO); Funded organization: ACORN Institute; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $96,953[A]; Program description: Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP) Supports nonprofit organizations that assist people who feel they have been victims of housing discrimination. Agency/office or division: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (OHHLHC); Funded organization: ACORN Associates, Inc.; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $1,999,920[I]; Program description: Lead Elimination Action Program (LEAP) Assists private-sector and non-profit organizations in creating wide-ranging programs to identify and control lead-based paint hazards in eligible privately owned housing. Agency/office or division: Office of Public and Indian Housing (PIH); Funded organization: NYACA; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $124,942; 2006 - $249,894; Program description: Resident Opportunities and Self Sufficiency Grant (ROSS) Provides supportive services to public housing residents, for example, by linking them with essential services, or providing assistance to become economically self sufficient. Also supports independent living for the elderly. Agency/office or division: Office of Public and Indian Housing (PIH); Funded organization: ACORN Institute; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $362,378; 2006 - $189,171[J]; 2006 - $124,915; 2006 - $179,916; 2006 - $124,693; 2007 - $124,324; Program description: Resident Opportunities and Self Sufficiency Grant (ROSS) Provides supportive services to public housing residents, for example, by linking them with essential services, or providing assistance to become economically self sufficient. Also supports independent living for the elderly. Department of Justice (DOJ): Agency/office or division: Office of Justice Programs (OJP); Funded organization: NYACA; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2005 - $138,130; Program description: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Grant; Provides youth leadership training to students at select New York City schools; forms "ACORN Youth Union" chapters; and coordinates student campaigns to address issues such as school funding, neighborhood safety, and school governance. Agency/office or division: Office of Justice Programs (OJP); Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2006 - $450,000 [A]; Program description: Trafficking Task Forces and Victim Services Program; Provides comprehensive services to human trafficking victims in the state of Utah. Agency/office or division: Department of State (DOS)[K]; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2007; Program description: Federal Assistance Award. Department of Transportation (DOT): Agency/office or division: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2009 - $50,000; Program description: Technical Assistance Grant Provides funding to communities and non-profit groups for technical assistance in the form of engineering or other scientific analysis of pipeline safety issues or to help promote public participation in official proceedings pertaining to pipeline safety. Election Assistance Commission (EAC): Funded organization: Project Vote[L]; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2006 - $16,875; Program description: Help America Vote College Program, College Poll Worker Grants Develops programs that recruit and train college students to serve as nonpartisan poll workers and poll assistants and to encourage students to assist in the administration of elections. Funded organization: Project Vote[L]; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2006 - $16,875; Program description: Help America Vote College Program, College Poll Worker Grants Develops programs that recruit and train college students to serve as nonpartisan poll workers and poll assistants and to encourage students to assist in the administration of elections. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): Funded organization: The Tides Center; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2009 - $581,839[A]; Program description: Cooperative Research in Planetary Astronomy Provides support to an educational institution for the development or improvement of that institution's capability to contribute to the public and to the national aeronautical and space program. NeighborWorks: Agency/office or division: AHC; Fiscal year and amount (in dollars): 2008 - $25,050,939[M]; Program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure through a national network of nonprofit organizations. Direct Awards Total: $44,553,968. Source: GAO analysis of agency data. [A] NASA's funding and selected USDA, HUD, and DOJ funding were awarded as cooperative agreements. The award by DOD in 2005 was a contract. All other funding was awarded as grants. [B] According to the Tides Center, these three awards were not to the Tides Center, but to an affiliated organization, Tides Center (PA), which has since terminated its existence. We include the awards here because our analysis of potentially related organizations was based on DUNS numbers, and the DUNS number and EIN included in the grant documentation for Tides Center (PA) matched the DUNS number and EIN used by the Tides Center. [C] The Tides Center asked HHS to terminate this grant because, according to the Tides Center, the Utah Health and Human Rights Project, which had been a project of the Tides Center responsible for carrying out the duties identified in the grant agreement, separated from the Tides Center. The decision was made to change the grantee from the Tides Center to the Utah Health and Human Rights Project. HHS officials indicated that because Tides Center was not administering the grant, which was being done by the Utah Health and Human Rights Project (UHHR), and because UHHR had the financial capabilities to properly manage the grant's resources, a decision was made to change the grantee from the Tides Center to the Utah Health and Human Rights. [D] DHS awarded a second Fire Prevention and Safety Program grant to the ACORN Institute in 2008 for $997,482; however, that grant was rescinded in November 2009 in response to section 163 of the Continuing Resolution, which prohibited funding to ACORN or any of ACORN's affiliates, subsidiaries, or allied organizations. [E] The grant was closed with a balance of $461,086 not expended before the expenditure deadline. [F] This grant expired with an unobligated balance of $20,000. [G] HUD reported this award was terminated due to the grantee's failure to effectively manage and monitor the project, with $15,000 of the total expended before termination. [H] HUD reported this award was terminated before any activities were completed due to inaccuracies in the grant agreement and negotiation difficulties. Funds awarded were rescinded. [I] This grant was closed with a balance of $594,218 remaining. [J] This grant had a remaining balance of $63,450. [K] DOS awarded a grant to ACORN or a potentially related organization; however because the nature of the grant is sensitive, details of the grant are not included in this report. [L] EAC awarded two separate grants to Project Vote-Delaware and Project Vote-Michigan and both of these grantees used the DUNS number for Project Vote in Washington, D.C. in their grant documentation. [M] Funding was from fiscal year 2008 appropriations, but the funds were disbursed to the awardee in two rounds in 2008 and 2009. NeighborWorks stated that $6,231,438 was recaptured or deobligated. [End of table] Subawards to ACORN or potentially related organizations were not identifiable for all agencies for fiscal years 2005 through 2009 because agencies were not required to collect information on subawards until after October 1, 2010. Congress passed the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (Transparency Act) which, among other things, required the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to establish, no later than January 1, 2008, a publicly accessible Web site containing data on direct federal awards and to include data on subawards in the accessible Web site by January 1, 2009.[Footnote 15] On April 6, 2010, OMB issued a memorandum directing agencies to initiate subaward reporting as of October 1, 2010, through USAspending.gov, pursuant to the Transparency Act.[Footnote 16] Although it was not required at the time, officials from at least nine agencies were able to identify subawards to ACORN or potentially related organizations. Officials from NeighborWorks and the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) stated that subaward information was collected from grantees in their grant applications and these officials were confident that any subawards to ACORN or potentially related organizations would have been identified. Other agency officials indicated some confidence that subawards would have been identified based on their search. DOE, for example, contacted individual contracting offices and checked available documentation to search for subawards to ACORN or potentially related organizations. United States Geological Survey (a component of the Department of Interior [DOI]) officials said that while they could not track subaward funding, given their mission, they believed there was little likelihood that the agency's grantees made any subawards to ACORN or potentially related organizations. Officials from about half of the 31 agencies stated that they did not collect information on subawards, or they were not able to search for subawards using DUNS numbers because the subawardee DUNS numbers were not available, as was the case with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), DOI, and the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS).[Footnote 17] Table 2 includes information agencies were able to provide on funding that their grantees awarded to ACORN or potentially related organizations through subgrants or subcontracts. Given the limitations described above, this table may not include all of the subawards that may have been awarded to ACORN or potentially related organizations. Table 2: Selected Subawards to ACORN and Potentially Related Organizations, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Funding agency: DOJ[A]: Subawardee: ACORN Institute; Grantee: Operation Weed and Seed - St. Louis Inc.; Fiscal year and amount: 2007 - $13,000; Grant program description: Weed and Seed Grant Program Prevents, controls, and reduces violent crime, drug abuse, and gang activities in designated high-crime neighborhoods across the country, following a strategy to "weed out" criminals and "seed" neighborhoods with human services. Subawardee: ACORN Institute; Grantee: City of Phoenix; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $8,539[B]. Funding agency: EPA: Subawardee: ACORN Institute; Grantee: Ysleta Tribe; Fiscal year and amount: 2007 - $23,770; Grant program description: Lead Poisoning Baseline Assessment of Children and Education Outreach Provides grants for tribal education on lead exposure, prevention, poisoning detection, and treatment routes. Subawardee: Arkansas ACORN; Grantee: University of Arkansas; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $32,651[C]; Grant program description: National Community-Based Lead Outreach and Training Grant; Promotes efforts to prevent or reduce childhood lead poisoning. Funding agency: HUD: Community Planning and Development; Subawardee: ACORN Beverly, L.L.C[ D]; Grantee: Phoenix; Fiscal year and amount: 2005 - $750,000; Grant program description: HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME); Provides grants to state and local governments to implement local housing strategies designed to increase homeownership and affordable housing opportunities for low-and very-low-income Americans. Community Planning and Development; Subawardee: Arizona AHC; Grantee: Phoenix; Fiscal year and amount: 2007 - $10,500[E]; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Oakland; Fiscal year and amount: 2005-2007 - $76,000[F]; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Bridgeport; Fiscal year and amount: 2006 - $20,000; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: New Orleans; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $75,000[G]; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Baltimore; Fiscal year and amount: 2005 - $41,900[H] 2006 - $41,900; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Subawardee: AHC of Pennsylvania; Grantee: Philadelphia; Fiscal year and amount: 2005 - $175,000 2006 - $186,250 2007 - $163,096 2008 - $140,000 2009 - $140,000; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Houston; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $155,000; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Houston; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $31,546; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Chicago; Fiscal year and amount: 2005 - $22,500[I]; 2006 - $22,500[J]; 2007 - $22,000[K]; Grant program description: Community Development Block Grant Program; Supports efforts, among other things, to promote affordable housing, provide services to the most vulnerable community members, and create jobs through the expansion and retention of businesses. The annual CDBG appropriation is allocated to states and local jurisdictions using a formula comprised of several measures of community need. A majority of the funds are for activities that benefit low-and moderate- income persons, and each activity must meet one of the national program objectives, such as prevention or elimination of slums or blight. Funding agency: National Endowment for the Arts (NEA): (Operating Support); Subawardee: Arkansas Broadcasting Foundation (KABF-FM); Grantee: Arkansas Arts Council; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $5,853; Grant program description: Partnership Agreements-State Partnership Grant Program; Supports the state arts agencies and regional arts organizations to make arts available to more communities. Funding agency: National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). Subawardee: ACORN; Grantee: Humanities Texas; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $1,500; Grant program description: Provides public screening and discussion of an historical documentary. Funding agency: NeighborWorks: Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Connecticut Housing Finance Agency (HFA); Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $93,060; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: State of New York Mortgage Agency/New York HFA (SONYMA); Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $110,716; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Subawardee: MHANY Management Inc; Grantee: SONYMA; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $46,147; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Subawardee: MHANY Management Inc; Grantee: SONYMA; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $63,569; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Florida Housing Finance Corporation; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $162,464; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Missouri Housing Development Commission (MHDC); Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $201,800[L]; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: Minnesota HFA; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $126,225; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Subawardee: AHC; Grantee: California Housing Finance Commission; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $611,340; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Subawardee: AHC of Pennsylvania; Grantee: Pennsylvania HFA; Fiscal year and amount: 2008 - $120,400; Grant program description: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Provides counseling services to people facing foreclosure using a national network of non-profit organizations. Funding agency: Treasury: Subawardee: ACORN; Grantee: Central New Mexico Community College; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $418; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Subawardee: ACORN; Grantee: Central New Mexico Community College; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $426; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Subawardee: ACORN Maryland; Grantee: Baltimore CASH Coalition ACORN Maryland; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $17,260; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Subawardee: San Mateo ACORN; Grantee: United Way-Bay Area; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $10,000; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Subawardee: San Francisco ACORN; Grantee: United Way-Bay Area; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $15,000; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Subawardee: Contra Costa ACORN; Grantee: United Way-Bay Area; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $12,000; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Subawardee: Oakland ACORN; Grantee: United Way-Bay Area; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $10,000[M]; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Subawardee: Hartford ACORN; Grantee: Co-Opportunity Inc; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $4,825; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Subawardee: ACORN Bridgeport; Grantee: Connecticut Assoc. for Human Services; Fiscal year and amount: 2009 - $4,500; Grant program description: Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program; Provides free tax help to low- to moderate-income people. Certified volunteers sponsored by various organizations receive training to assist in preparing basic tax returns in communities. Total Awarded: $3,768,655. Source: GAO analysis of agency data. [A] The DOJ Inspector General identified a subaward to ACORN from a DOJ grantee, Citizen Community of New York City (CCNYC) see Review of Department of Justice Grants to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, Inc. (ACORN) and its Affiliated Organizations, November, 2009. We included this subaward in our preliminary report, based on the Inspector General report; however the award is not included here because indicator information was not available on the subawardee to establish it as an ACORN or a potentially related organization. According to CCNYC, no funds were ever disbursed to the subawardee. [B] Funds were not disbursed. ACORN Institute relinquished the full award amount based on a request from DOJ that grant funds not be used to fund ACORN affiliates. [C] Our preliminary report mistakenly reported the year of the award as fiscal year 2008 instead of fiscal year 2009. [D] This award was in the form of a home construction loan to ACORN Beverly L.L.C, a limited liability corporation formed by Arizona ACORN Housing Corporation, for the purposes of building a low income housing subdivision, according to Phoenix officials and the contract document. City officials stated that the planned subdivision was scaled back due to economic conditions. Affordable Housing Centers of America (AHCOA) officials stated that $200,000 of the loan was never drawn down. ACORN Housing Corporation formally changed its name to AHCOA in December 2009. [E] The City of Phoenix closed this grant with $3,945 remaining when the terms of the grant ended. [F] A total of $42,554 was disbursed before the award was canceled because of noncompliance with reporting requirements. [G] This award was canceled in response to section 163 of the continuing resolution prohibiting funding to ACORN. [H] A total of $41,473 was expended. [I] A total of $21,925 was expended. [J] A total of $21,675 was expended. [K] A total of $21,470 was expended. [L] According to NeighborWorks' internal audit and letter from MHDC, this subaward was terminated by the Commission due to non-compliance with the agreement by the subawardee. AHCOA has disputed this claim, stating that the termination was mutually agreed upon. [M] Grantee funding was reduced from $10,000 to $7,000 after being cited for poor performance. [End of table] Agencies' Monitoring Was Based Primarily on Award Amount or Available Resources; Agencies Plan to Modify Monitoring as a Result of Audit Findings: Agencies' selection of monitoring mechanisms--ranging from the review of progress reports to site observations--used to monitor ACORN or potentially related organizations' use of direct funding awards depended primarily on risk factors such as the award amount or available resources to carry out the monitoring. Most of the mechanisms used by agencies did not detect issues identified through inspector general and internal audits; however, agency officials said they plan to use the audit findings to modify their monitoring processes for future grants. Agencies conduct monitoring to ensure that grantees are using funds for the intended purposes of their grants, as described in the grant agreements, and rely on their grantees to do the same for subawards. OMB Circular No. A-110 contains administrative requirements for federal grants. For monitoring program performance, the circular provides that the federal agency awarding the grant prescribes the frequency at which grantees should submit performance reports that contain information on progress in meeting grant goals.[Footnote 18] For financial reporting, Circular No. A-110 requires that recipients provide financial information on an OMB-approved form to report income, expenditures, and unobligated balances, among other things. While agencies are required to adhere to OMB guidelines, they have flexibility to develop grant monitoring protocols that are tailored to specific grant programs. The grant monitoring protocols we reviewed consisted of a range of monitoring mechanisms from which an agency's grant program officials could choose, such as reviews of progress reports or financial information, communications with grantee staff, or site observations. As stated in our June 2010 report, grant program officials generally considered grant amount or availability of resources when determining which monitoring mechanisms to apply. [Footnote 19] For example, CPB officials based their monitoring of the two radio stations (KABF and KNON) on self-reported information because a provision of the Communication Act of 1934, as amended, limits CPB to using no more than 5 percent of available funds (which equates to approximately five employees) for administrative expenses, including conducting grant monitoring.[Footnote 20] According to CPB officials, because CPB issues approximately 800 grants annually, it is not feasible for these employees to conduct extensive monitoring for many of CPB's grants. Also, FEMA officials stated that they selected to review ACORN Institute's progress reports and workplans because the relatively low grant amount did not call for additional monitoring such as on-site observation.[Footnote 21] Additional details on the monitoring activities conducted by the 13 agencies that provided direct funding to ACORN or potentially related organizations are in appendix II.[Footnote 22] Of the 13 agencies that provided direct awards to ACORN or potentially related organizations, the inspector general or internal audit unit at 5 agencies (CPB, EAC, DHS, HUD, and NeighborWorks) conducted audits of the direct awards in addition to the routine monitoring that had already been conducted. In addition, the DOJ Office of Inspector General issued a report in November 2009 regarding DOJ grants to ACORN and its affiliates, and has an ongoing audit of a direct award to an ACORN affiliate which had not been completed as of May 31, 2011. The audits and DOJ Inspector General collectively reviewed $31.2 million of the $44.6 million in direct funding to ACORN or potentially related organizations. These audits and the review were agency-initiated, or due to congressional requests or third-party complaints. All 5 agencies that completed audits of direct awards identified problems with the way ACORN or a potentially related organization managed federal funds, with the lack of proper recording and accounting for how funds were spent by the grantees being the primary problems identified. For example, the EAC Inspector General found that Project Vote's use of federal funds was not accounted for or properly recorded and recommended that EAC recover all unsupported and unallowable costs paid to Project Vote under the grant. A summary of the audit and review findings with regard to the way in which ACORN and potentially related organizations managed federal funds can be found in Table 3. [Footnote 23] Table 3: Summary of Audit and DOJ-IG Review Findings Regarding ACORN and Potentially Related Organizations' Management of Federal Grant Funds: CPB: Agency/grant program: Internet Acquisition Grant (FY05, $15,000); Communication Service Grants (FY07, $87,388); Grantee: KABF-FM; Summary of audit findings: Grantee: * Not in compliance with grant requirements; * Not properly accounting for receipts and expenditures; * Questioned for $49,957 of costs; Recommendation: CPB management should require KABF to refund the questioned costs and establish controls to ensure future compliance with CPB guidelines for documenting, recording, and reporting grant funds, among others; Findings identified by audit? Yes; Findings identified by grant monitoring? No. Agency/grant program: Internet Acquisition Grant (FY05, $15,000); Communication Service Grants (FY08, $103,839); Digital Radio Conversion Fund (FY06, $80,000); Grantee: KNON-FM; Summary of audit findings: Grantee: * Not in compliance with grant requirements; * Not properly accounting for receipts and expenditures; * Questioned $87,741 of costs; Recommendation: CPB management should require KNON to refund a portion of the questioned costs and institute controls to ensure CPB grant funds are expended on allowable activities, among others; Findings identified by audit? Yes; Findings identified by grant monitoring? No. DHS: Agency/grant program: Fire Prevention and Safety Grant (FY07, $450,484); Grantee: ACORN Institute; Summary of audit findings: Grantee: * Not fully implementing and evaluating the program as approved; * Not substantiating all of its grant expenditures; * Questioned $160,797 of costs; Recommendation: Agency (FEMA) should incorporate key indicators such as grantee's experience in its monitoring plan; Findings identified by audit? Yes; Findings identified by grant monitoring? No. HUD: Agency/grant program: Housing Counseling Program (FY07 and FY08, $3,252,399); Grantee: AHC; Summary of audit findings: Grantee: * Incurring $65,548 in ineligible salary expenses; * Salary expenses of $2.544 million were not fully supported; * Failing to follow federal procurement standards outlined in 24 C.F.R. for free and open competition for vendor goods and services; Recommendation: HUD should require AHC to refund unsupported costs and provide documentation for funds used; Findings identified by audit? Yes; Findings identified by grant monitoring? No. Agency/grant program: Lead Elimination Action Program (FY05, $1,999,920); Grantee: ACORN Associates, Inc; Summary of audit findings: Grantee: * Not administering its program in accordance with the grant agreement; * Failing to follow federal procurement standards for free and open competition for subawards; * Failing to maintain documentation for $217,995 in disbursed funds; * Expending $1,199,282 for unapproved purposes including campaign services and grant fundraising activities; Recommendation: HUD should require ACORN Associates to provide documentation of used funds and to reimburse for unapproved costs; Findings identified by audit? Yes; Findings identified by grant monitoring? Yes. DOJ: Agency/grant program: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Grant (FY05, $138,130); Grantee: NYACA; Summary of audit findings: The Inspector General's report summarized all DOJ grants to ACORN or potentially related organizations. It reported that the DOJ component that issued the direct grant--the Office of Justice Programs--had received progress and financial status reports, but had not conducted audits, financial reviews, or on-site reviews of funds provided to NYACA; Recommendation: None; Findings identified by audit? No; Findings identified by grant monitoring? No. EAC: Agency/grant program: Help America Vote College Program (FY06, $33,750); Grantee: Project Vote (Delaware); Project Vote (Michigan); Summary of audit findings: Grantee unable to: * Maintain cost records in accordance with grant requirements; * Document allowable costs; Recommendation: EAC should follow policies and procedures regarding obtaining and retaining required reporting documents and should work with Project Vote to identify any supporting cost records and recover any unsupported or unallowable costs; Findings identified by audit? Yes; Findings identified by grant monitoring? No. NeighborWorks: Agency/grant program: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program (FY08, $25,050,939)[A]; Grantee: AHC; Summary of audit findings: Grantee: * Not in compliance with program and regulatory requirements, such as submitting audited financial statements on time; * Having incomplete file documentation including missing documentation in client case files that would support their billing; Recommendation: AHC should provide and submit audited financial statements in a timely manner and implement control methods to improve completeness of documentation; Findings identified by audit? Yes; Findings identified by grant monitoring? No. Source: GAO analysis of agency audit findings. [A] NeighborWorks National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling (NFMC) management sent a letter to AHC (i.e., AHCOA) in April 2011 confirming that AHCOA provided satisfactory responses to the programmatic issues raised in the internal audit report. [End of table] Agencies' grant monitoring processes and additional audits had the same purpose--to assess whether grantees were managing federal funds appropriately. However, as shown in table 3, for the specific nine grantees audited, in all but one case, the agencies' monitoring procedures did not identify the same findings as their respective audits. Based on our analysis and discussions with officials from the six agencies overseeing these grants, the monitoring process that detected the same findings as the audit was very extensive and involved both document and receipt reviews as well as on-site observations. On the other hand, the monitoring processes that did not detect the same findings identified in the audits were generally less extensive, and typically involved a review of the grantee's financial information and progress reports, with one exception. NeighborWorks grant officials explained that they use a risk-based approach for including on-site reviews in the monitoring of grantees and a random selection process for on-site reviews of subgrantees, branches, and affiliates. ACORN Housing Corporation was selected for review the first year of the program, officials stated, but not for the second year because an internal audit was planned. Officials believed that the issues found by the internal audit would also have been identified by NeighborWorks' program monitoring process had the on-site review been conducted. The one instance in which the agency monitoring process did detect the same findings identified in its respective audit was with a grant issued by HUD's Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (Healthy Homes). Healthy Homes' grant officials stated that their monitoring activities were designed to and did identify the findings reported in the audit.[Footnote 24] For example, through their review of ACORN Associates' financial documentation, the Healthy Homes officials identified that this grantee failed or was unable to provide supporting documentation related to payment requests. Also, through their on-site review of the grantee, Healthy Homes grant officials identified deficiencies in ACORN Associates' record keeping and subcontracting, which were confirmed by the audit findings. The lack of documentation to justify payment requests raised questions by the Healthy Homes grant official regarding ACORN Associates' compliance with record keeping requirements in the grant agreement. Subsequently, Healthy Homes determined that a referral to the Inspector General's Audit Division for additional review was appropriate, especially to determine whether ACORN Associates expended program funds in accordance with HUD's requirements. Furthermore, Healthy Homes grant officials stated that they referred ACORN Associates for administrative sanctions with a recommendation for suspension and debarment based on their findings. Grant officials from agencies other than Healthy Homes stated that their monitoring processes did not detect the audit findings because they were not able to conduct extensive monitoring activities due to limited resources. For example, EAC officials stated that monitoring provided by the EAC grant program officials for grants to ACORN or potentially related organizations was limited to a review of the grantee's progress reports based on, among others, perceived risk of the grant's low dollar amount and lack of resources. The officials said the limited number of staff (four) and the large number of grants to monitor (more than 200 each year) did not allow them to conduct more in-depth monitoring, such as verification of receipts and invoices. The EAC Inspector General may also conduct a more in-depth review of grantees' financial information as part of an audit rather than in a general monitoring role, such as the monitoring of the use of funds, which is the EAC program's responsibility. Similarly, FEMA grant program officials said that they have about 50 staff who could reasonably monitor about 5,000 grants a year; however, FEMA issues about 14,000 grants every year, in which case it has decided to use a risk-based approach to determine which grants it will monitor more extensively. HUD-Federal Housing Administration (HUD-FHA) grant officials stated that their monitoring process did not explicitly cover the issue of recording and documenting expenses, which was the finding identified by HUD Inspector General's audit of ACORN Housing Corporation. In addition, they stated that their monitoring officials did not have the resources to travel and conduct the extensive monitoring that the Inspector General conducted. Lastly, in the case of CPB, officials stated that the agency's administrative costs (which include monitoring activities) are capped at 5 percent of their total budget by law, thus limiting more extensive monitoring activities, such as on-site monitoring. CPB officials stated that because of this statutory cap, they rely on the audits conducted by the Inspector General to supplement CPB's own program monitoring efforts. Based on the results of the audits, most agency officials stated that they have improved, or plan to improve, their monitoring processes consistent with their resource levels.[Footnote 25] For example, NeighborWorks grant officials stated that in response to their internal audit unit's findings, NeighborWorks improved its monitoring process by increasing the number of grantees (from 179 to 275 grantees) that were randomly selected for more extensive reviews by a third party. EAC grant officials stated that they developed a grantee tracking sheet and are conducting site visits of newly awarded grantees. Also, EAC officials stated that they have developed materials to help grantees better understand documentation and reporting, including a grant handbook as well as holding webinars training sessions.[Footnote 26] The FEMA grant director said that in response to the DHS Inspector General's report, FEMA has revised the way in which it assesses the perceived risk of potential grantees by requiring additional application information regarding their prior experience using federal funds. Subsequently, FEMA officials reported that they plan to use this risk assessment to determine the extent of monitoring required for that particular grantee. Lastly, HUD-FHA grant officials stated that they have revised their existing monitoring review form and guidance to better assess compliance with proper recording and documenting expenses. For example, under the HUD-FHA performance review checklist that guides the monitoring review, HUD grant officials stated that they added questions related to having source documentation on file to support all expenditures of HUD Housing Counseling Grant funding as well as demonstrating that activities billed under the HUD Housing Counseling Grant were not billed under any other funding sources. Also, HUD-FHA officials stated that they have added a segment to the grantee requirement section of the performance review guide related to properly recording and documenting expenses to help guide and standardize the performance review analysis. HUD-FHA officials also said that they are requiring annual on-site financial and administrative reviews to be conducted by a third party on all of HUD-approved housing counseling organizations. Twenty-two Federal Investigations of Wage Violations and Voter Registration and Election Fraud Resulted in Guilty Pleas in One Case and One Civil Penalty: Distinct from routine grant monitoring efforts, which are intended to assess whether grantees are meeting the purposes of the grant program and spending funds appropriately, federal agencies may also conduct investigations of an organization or an employee of an organization to determine whether the organization or employee violated federal law. We received information about such investigations from EOUSA, FBI, FEC, and DOL.[Footnote 27] From fiscal years 2005 to 2009, ACORN and potentially related organizations or their employees were identified as being involved to varying degrees in the 22 matters detailed in the tables below. The allegations involved were generally related to voter registration fraud, election fraud, and wage violations, and while most were closed without prosecution, eight defendants were convicted of various federal criminal violations and one FEC matter resulted in a civil penalty. Only information on closed investigations and cases was provided. The offices of inspector general can also conduct investigations related to agency programs. However, each of the 31 inspectors general that we contacted stated that they had no closed investigations of ACORN or potentially related organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009.[Footnote 28] The case that resulted in guilty pleas involved allegations of voter registration fraud by eight employees of ACORN, but did not allege wrongdoing by ACORN or any potentially related organizations.[Footnote 28] This case resulted in guilty pleas by the defendants, and penalties included probation and imprisonment. EOUSA and the FBI also identified seven closed investigations, most concerning allegations of voter registration fraud on the part of employees of ACORN. Of the seven investigations, all were closed without federal prosecution for reasons such as lack of, or insufficiency of, evidence. These investigations are summarized in table 4. Table 4: U.S. Attorney's Office and FBI Closed Case and Investigations Involving ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations or Their Employees; Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Case name: United States v. Bland; No. 07-0763 (E.D. Mo.); Case summary: Eight defendants were changed in an indictment filed on December 20, 2007 with two counts each of voter registration fraud in violation of 42 U.S.C. 1973i(c), 1973gg-10 and 18 U.S.C. 2. The indictment alleged that ACORN[A] recruited workers to obtain voter registrations in the City of St. Louis and St. Louis County and trained them in how to properly obtain registration applications. It further alleged that the defendants were employed by ACORN to obtain voter registrations and that defendants knowingly submitted voter registration applications with false information; Outcome: All defendants entered guilty pleas. Defendants received a variety of sentences ranging from, for example, a term of probation for 1 year and an assessment of $100.00 and imprisonment for a term of 6 months with a term of probation for 2 years and a term of supervised release of 12 months. Date when the investigation was closed: 2005; Allegations: The FBI investigated allegations that employees of ACORN/Project Vote submitted fraudulent voter registration cards; Outcome: The USAO closed the investigation due to lack of conclusive evidence. Date when the investigation was closed: 2006; Allegations: The FBI investigated allegations that a person identified as being affiliated with ACORN procured or submitted false voter registration applications; Outcome: The FBI referred the case to the USAO, which declined to proceed with federal criminal prosecution due to insufficient evidence. Date when the investigation was closed: 2007; Allegations: The FBI investigated allegations that employees of ACORN were registering non-U.S. citizens to vote; Outcome: The FBI referred the case to the USAO, which declined to proceed with a federal criminal prosecution due to insufficient evidence. Date when the investigation was closed: 2008; Allegations: The FBI investigated allegations that subjects affiliated with ACORN provided false information regarding a voter registration drive; Outcome: The FBI referred the case to the USAO which declined to proceed with federal criminal prosecution due to pending criminal charges in a state jurisdiction. Date when the investigation was closed: 2008; Allegations: The FBI investigation involving ACORN/Project Vote and false voter registration documents; Outcome: The matter was referred to the USAO which declined to proceed with federal criminal prosecution due to insufficient evidence. Date when the investigation was closed: 2009; Allegations: The FBI investigated allegations of voter registration fraud by employees of ACORN; Outcome: The FBI closed the investigation without action due to lack of evidence of a violation of state or federal election laws. Date when the investigation was closed: 2009; Allegations: The FBI investigation involving ACORN and allegations of possible violation of section 2 of the Voting Rights Act, 42 U.S.C. 1973[B]; Outcome: The matter was referred to the USAO which declined to proceed with federal criminal prosecution and referred the matter to local district attorney. Source: GAO analysis of FBI information. [A] Our preliminary report identified an additional organization involved in this case; we excluded the name of this organization because we did not have indicator information to link it with ACORN. [B] Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act prohibits voting practices or procedures that discriminate on the basis of race, color, or membership in a language minority group. [End of table] The FEC identified five closed matters of alleged or submitted violations of the Federal Election Campaign Act, such as violations of political committee registration requirements and campaign contributions, involving ACORN and potentially related organizations. [Footnote 30] In three of the matters, the FEC determined that there was no reason to believe that the alleged violations occurred and the FEC dismissed one matter. In the remaining matter, an organization potentially related to ACORN filed a submission to the FEC that one of its employees improperly solicited donations for the organization. FEC accepted a conciliation agreement, which required the organization to pay a penalty and disgorge the donations it received.[Footnote 31] These matters are summarized in table 5. Table 5: FEC Matters Opened from Fiscal Years 2005 to 2009 That Involve ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations: Matter number: MUR no. 5820; ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN; Project Vote; Matter summary: A complaint was filed with the FEC alleging that ACORN and Project Vote violated the registration requirements for political committees under the Federal Election Campaign Act and FEC regulations. The complaint stated that based upon publicly available information found on ACORN's web site, depositions and exhibits filed in the federal case Mac Stuart v. Acorn, and press coverage of ACORN and affiliated organizations, there was reason to believe that ACORN and Project Vote failed to file the independent expenditure reports required by 2 U.S.C. 434(c). The complaint further alleged that ACORN and Project Vote received contributions or made expenditures for which the aggregate value was in excess of $1,000 during a calendar year without registering as political committees under the act; Outcome: The FEC found no reason to believe that ACORN or Project Vote failed to register as a political committee and failed to file disclosure reports, in violation of 2 U.S.C. 433 and 434(a). Matter number: MUR no. 5843; ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN; Matter summary: A complaint was filed with the FEC alleging that ACORN violated the registration requirements for political committees under the Federal Election Campaign Act and FEC regulations. The complaint stated that based upon publicly available information (including documentary video footage of ACORN employees) and press reports, there was reason to believe that ACORN, and its affiliated entity "Give Missourians a Raise, Inc.," failed to file the independent expenditure reports required by 2 U.S.C. 434(c). The complaint further alleged that ACORN and Give Missourians a Raise, Inc. received contributions or made expenditures aggregating in excess of $1,000 during a calendar year without registering as political committees under the act; Outcome: The FEC voted to dismiss the allegations that ACORN failed to register as a political committee and failed to file disclosure reports, in violation of 2 U.S.C. 433 and 434(a). Matter number: MUR no. 5859; ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN; Matter summary: A complaint was filed with the FEC alleging that ACORN illegally coordinated with the campaign committee of Lois Murphy. The complaint alleged this activity was in violation of FEC regulations regarding endorsements of organizations; Outcome: The FEC found no reason to believe that ACORN violated 2 U.S.C 441(b). Matter number: MUR no. 5970; ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN; Citizens Consulting Inc.; SEIU Local 100; Matter summary: A complaint was filed with the FEC alleging that the Donna Edwards for Congress Committee received substantial monetary assistance by way of unreported contributions from organizations that professed to have operated independently of the Edwards campaign; Outcome: The FEC found no reason to believe that the respondents violated the Federal Election Campaign Act. Matter number: MUR no. 6290; ACORN or potentially related organization: Project Vote; Matter summary: Project Vote and one of its former directors filed a submission to the FEC that the director solicited donations from individuals whose names and addresses appeared on a political committee disclosure report obtained from the FEC's Web site in violation of 2 U.S.C. 438(a)(4) and 11 C.F.R. 104.15(a). Project Vote received $4,415 in donations from individuals whose names and addresses were from the FEC's Web site; Project Vote had not refunded these donations when the matter was initiated; Outcome: The FEC accepted a conciliation agreement, which required Project Vote to pay a civil penalty of $2,200 to the FEC and disgorge to the U.S. Treasury the $4,415 in donations it received from improper solicitations. Source: GAO analysis of information provided by the FEC. [End of table] DOL reported nine cases and investigations of ACORN and potentially related organizations--one delinquent reporting case for failure to file required documentation and eight conciliation cases and investigations involving alleged wage violations.[Footnote 31] For all of these cases and investigations, ACORN or a potentially related organization has either complied with or has agreed to take corrective measures to comply with applicable requirements. The cases and investigations are summarized in table 6. Table 6: DOL Cases and Investigations Opened from Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009 that Involve ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations: ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN (Tucson); Case number: 1458871; Summary: The Phoenix Office of the Wage and Hour Division opened a conciliation case in response to a complaint that ACORN failed to pay two employees for all back wages owed, which totaled $211; Outcome: ACORN agreed to comply; the complainant verified receipt of $211 received in back wages. ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN Housing Corporation (AHC) (Oakland); Case number: 1470652; Summary: The San Francisco Office of the Wage and Hour Division opened a conciliation case in response to a complaint that AHC did not pay an employee for 109 overtime hours. The complainant was not able to document this allegation and AHC could only verify 51.61 hours of overtime worked; Outcome: ACORN Housing Corporation agreed to pay the complainant $835 for 51.61 hours of overtime; the Office is awaiting proof of payment. ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN Associates; Case number: 1564327; Summary: The New Orleans Office of the Wage and Hour Division opened a conciliation case in response to a complaint that ACORN Associates failed to pay an employee for 222 hours worked; Outcome: ACORN Associates initially refused to pay but then agreed to pay $4,884 for the 222 hours worked; the employer provided documentation to substantiate the payment. ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN Housing (Kansas City); Case number: 1547810; Summary: The Kansas City Office of the Wage and Hour Division opened a conciliation case in response to a complaint alleging non payment of $1000 for two weeks of salary; Outcome: ACORN Housing notified the Kansas City District Office that the complainant had received the back wages. The Office confirmed that the complainant received payment of $524. ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN (Newark); Case number: 1547981; Summary: The Northern New Jersey Office of the Wage and Hour Division opened a limited investigation over alleged minimum wage and overtime violations; Outcome: ACORN agreed to pay all of the owed back wages; the complainant verified that all the wages were paid in full totaling $3,805. ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN Housing Corporation (Houston); Case number: 1508221; Summary: The Houston Office of the Wage and Hour Division opened a limited investigation over alleged overtime violations; Outcome: ACORN Housing agreed to comply and pay all back wages due of $2,499 to seven employees; the employer provided proof of payment to the District Office for four employees and payment to DOL for the three other employees because ACORN Housing Corporation could not locate them. ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN (Columbus); Case number: 1513410; Summary: The Columbus, Ohio Office of the Wage and Hour Division opened a full investigation over alleged overtime violations; Outcome: ACORN agreed to comply and pay the $87 owed in back wages for two employees. ACORN or potentially related organization: ACORN (Miami); Case number: 1477594; Summary: The Miami Office of the Wage and Hour Division opened a conciliation case in response to a complaint that ACORN failed to pay an employee for 11.5 hours, which totaled $59 in back wages; Outcome: ACORN agreed to comply and pay the $59 owed in back wages; ACORN stated that the employee could pick up his check. ACORN or potentially related organization: SEIU Local 100 (renamed United Labor Union Local 100); Case number: 93065; Summary: The Office of Labor Management Standards opened a delinquent reporting case of SEIU Local 100; Outcome: The Office of Labor Management Standards closed the case. SEIU Local 100 complied with the reporting requirements. Source: GAO analysis of information provided by DOL. [End of table] All 27 Agencies Subject to Fiscal Year 2010 ACORN Appropriations Restrictions Have Taken Action to Implement Those Restrictions, Some in Response to Our Inquiries: Twenty-seven agencies took action to comply with applicable fiscal year 2010 appropriations restrictions prohibiting funding for ACORN and certain related organizations, while four agencies did not have an ACORN restriction provision in their appropriations acts.[Footnote 32] According to federal law and OMB guidance, agencies are required to establish and maintain a system of accounting and internal controls that reasonably ensure that their obligations and costs comply with applicable law.[Footnote 33] However, for statutory provisions that affect multiple federal agencies, OMB may also provide guidance to help ensure agency compliance. Further, agencies are required by the Antideficiency Act to establish, subject to OMB approval, a system of administrative control (also known as funds control) designed to, among other things, restrict obligations or expenditures from each appropriation to the amounts appropriated.[Footnote 34] With regard to the ACORN funding restrictions, OMB issued a memorandum in October 2009 which included guidance to help agencies comply with funding restrictions related to ACORN or its affiliates, subsidiaries, or allied organizations that appeared in continuing resolutions (CR) preceding the enactment of the fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts.[Footnote 35] OMB's CR guidance directed agencies to take all appropriate and necessary steps to comply with the restriction, including notifying all federal grant and contract recipients of the restriction for sub-award purposes. OMB did not provide similar guidance on how agencies should comply with subsequent restrictions contained in their fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts, which were more narrow than the CR restrictions for 24 of the 27 agencies and applied only to ACORN and its subsidiaries. However, OMB did provide updates on whether the restrictions were still in effect per ongoing litigation--including a March 2010 memorandum stating that the restrictions were not in effect based on a federal district court order, and a May 2010 update note added to this memorandum stating that the restrictions were again in effect based on an appellate court order.[Footnote 36] Additional information on each agency's funding restriction and the related litigation can be found in appendix III. The actions that agencies most commonly reported taking to implement the applicable funding restrictions were communicating with internal staff and notifying grantees about the restrictions. Twenty-six agencies communicated internally about the restrictions through e- mails, memorandums, or oral communication to alert agency personnel of the applicable restriction. For example, a Senior Procurement Executive in the DOL issued a memorandum on the restriction to all agency heads directing them to add language from the restriction to their award documentation and to advise grant and contract recipients of the restriction. In addition, 10 agencies alerted their awardees of the restriction in award documentation or written notices. The "terms and conditions" section of Education's grant award notification, for example, requires award recipients to consult with Education regarding the appropriateness of subawards to ACORN or its subsidiaries. Five agencies disseminated information to staff regarding the legal status of the appropriations restrictions, based on OMB's May 2010 update note that the restrictions were again in effect. Two agencies--HUD and the National Science Foundation (NSF)--provided guidance on which organizations may fall within the scope of their respective funding restrictions. Specifically, in a memo to its awardees, HUD described its determination that AHCOA is not an ACORN subsidiary, affiliate, or allied organization to illustrate the process that grantees should use to make determinations regarding their subaward recipients.[Footnote 37] NSF provided internal guidance specifying that "ACORN subsidiaries" appear to include the name "ACORN" in the title. As an additional implementation action, NeighborWorks requested that GAO issue a decision as to the availability of its appropriation for grants to AHCOA, one of its potential awardees.[Footnote 38] When determining what actions to take to implement the funding restrictions, agencies considered the likelihood that they would fund an organization such as ACORN. EAC, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), NEH, and IMLS volunteered that they considered themselves at a low-risk for funding the organizations within their restriction. For example, IMLS officials stated that their eligibility requirements, which limit funding to the furtherance of museum and library services, would prevent them from funding ACORN or its subsidiaries, even in the absence of the funding restriction. Not all agencies had taken action to implement the funding restriction provisions prior to when we began our review in August 2010. Specifically, 11 agencies--CNCS, DOD, DOS, DOT, HHS, NASA, NEH, NARA, NSF, the Small Business Administration (SBA), and Social Security Administration (SSA)--indicated that they took action to implement the restriction, at least in part, as a result of our inquiries and subsequent conversations. Agencies' implementation actions are categorized below in table 8. Table 7: Actions Agencies Have Taken to Implement Applicable Funding Restrictions[A]: Agency: CNCS[B]; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Check]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: CPB; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: Department of Commerce (DOC); Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Check]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: DOD[C, D]; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: DOI; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Check]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: DOJ; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Check]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: DOL; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: DOS; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: DOT; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: EAC; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: Education; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: EPA; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: FEC; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: HHS; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Check]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: HUD; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Check]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: IMLS; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Check]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: NARA; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: NASA; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: NEA; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: NEH; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: NeighborWorks; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Check]. Agency: NSF; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Check]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: SBA; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: SSA; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: Treasury; Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Check][E]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Agency: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); Advised staff of the restrictions: [Check]; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: [Empty]; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: [Empty]; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: [Empty]; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: [Empty]. Total; Advised staff of the restrictions: 27; Provided staff information from OMB‘s update note: 6; Notified grantees of the restriction in grant documentation or otherwise: 11; Provided guidance on which ACORN organizations are subject to restriction: 2; Requested determination on whether a specific organization is subject to restriction: 1. Source: GAO analysis of information provided by agency. [A] Our table does not include actions taken to implement the ACORN funding restrictions contained in the continuing resolutions that preceded the fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts because the CR restrictions were not the same as the appropriations act restrictions for 24 of the 27 covered agencies. This is true for the 14 agencies that reported disseminating OMB's CR guidance to staff: CNCS, NASA, DOJ, SBA, SSA, DOS, Education, EPA, DOD, DOI, NEA, DOL, Treasury, and USAID. [B] CNCS provided a link to OMB's May 2010 update, stating that the appropriations restrictions remain in effect, however the newsletter containing the OMB link stated that the CNCS restriction applies to ACORN, its affiliates, its subsidiaries, or allied organizations. CNCS's restriction, however, applies to only ACORN and its subsidiaries. [C] In addition to internally communicating about the restriction, DOD distributed a memorandum on April 12, 2011, stating that under continuing resolution appropriations, the provisions of DOD's appropriations act for 2010--which contained an ACORN-related funding prohibition--continue in effect. The memo incorrectly described the prohibition as restricting funds provided to ACORN, its affiliates, subsidiaries, or allied organizations, but the restriction applies to only funds provided to ACORN and its subsidiaries. However, as of 3 days later, on April 15, 2011, when DOD's fiscal year 2011 appropriations bill became law, DOD is not subject to an ACORN-related appropriations restriction. See Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, Pub. L. No. 112-10 Div.A. [D] Upon becoming aware of the possibility that one grantee was potentially related to ACORN, NSA--which is an agency of DOD under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense--took an additional action to implement the restriction. Specifically, NSA created a Representation and Certification in October 2010 requiring any prospective grantee to represent and certify that the prospective grantee is not related to ACORN with a continuing obligation to notify NSA within 15 days of the establishment of any future relationship. [E] This action was not taken by the entire Department of the Treasury, but only IRS-VITA. [End of table] We were not able to assess how effective agencies' actions were at preventing agencies from awarding funding to the organizations included in their funding restrictions because there is no definitive list of organizations that agencies are prohibited from funding. However, we searched USAspending.gov to determine if, during fiscal year 2010 and the first two quarters of 2011, the organizations included in this report that are potentially related to ACORN received any federal funding[Footnote 40]. Based on our search, we found that none of the organizations included in this report that continue to have indicators of affiliation with ACORN received federal funding during fiscal years 2010 and the first two quarters of 2011.[Footnote 41] For fiscal year 2010, four agencies initially made nine awards to organizations included in this report--specifically, Tides Center (six awards), ACORN Albuquerque (also known as ACORN Associates) (one award), ACORN Community Land Association of Louisiana (one award), and New York Agency for Community Affairs (one award), but the awards to the latter three organizations were retracted, and we determined that after 2009, Tides Center no longer had any indicators of affiliation with ACORN.[Footnote 42] For the first two quarters of fiscal year 2011, one agency made two awards to ACORN Housing Corporation (New Orleans)--currently Affordable Housing Centers of America (AHCOA). One of these awards was retracted, and in September 2010, we found that AHCOA did not have any indicators of affiliation with ACORN.[Footnote 43] Agency Comments, Third-Party Views and Our Evaluation: We provided a draft of this report for review and comment to 29 of the 31 agencies included in this review; the inspectors general for CPB, DHS, DOJ, EAC, and HUD; internal audit officials at NeighborWorks; and OMB.[Footnote 44] We also sent a draft of this report to the nine organizations identified in this report as being part of ACORN or potentially related to ACORN for which contact information was available.[Footnote 45] We received technical comments from Education, DOT, DOL, HHS, NeighborWorks, VA, and the DOJ Inspector General, which were incorporated into our report. Education and HHS provided additional documentation to support actions taken to implement their funding restrictions, which we incorporated as appropriate. OMB identified additional steps it took to inform agencies about the ACORN litigation, which we added to the relevant section of appendix III. Thirteen agencies and the HUD and EAC Inspectors General replied that they had no comments on the draft report.[Footnote 46] The remaining agencies and inspectors general did not reply within the time requested; however, we had already incorporated comments they provided on an earlier draft of the report. Of the nine third-parties, AHCOA responded with one technical comment, which we incorporated. The Tides Center provided a letter response with no comments for incorporation. The remaining seven third parties did not reply to our request for comment. We are sending copies of this report to the appropriate congressional committees. We are also sending copies to 29 of the 31 agencies included in this review (two agencies, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy, did not identify funding and had no funding restrictions in their appropriations acts) and to other interested parties. In addition, this report will be available at no charge on the GAO Web site at [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov]. If you or your staffs have any questions about this report, please contact me at 202-512-6510 or LarenceE@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last page of this report. Key contributors to this report are listed in appendix IV. Signed by: Eileen R. Larence: Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues: List of Requesters: The Honorable Daniel K. Inouye: Chairman: The Honorable Thad Cochran: Vice Chairman: Committee on Appropriations: United States Senate: The Honorable Charles E. Grassley: Ranking Member: Committee on the Judiciary: United States Senate: The Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski: Chairwoman: The Honorable Kay Bailey Hutchison: Ranking Member: Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: Committee on Appropriations: United States Senate: The Honorable Harold Rogers: Chairman: The Honorable Norman D. Dicks: Ranking Member: Committee on Appropriations: House of Representatives: The Honorable Lamar S. Smith: Chairman: Committee on the Judiciary: House of Representatives: The Honorable Frank R. Wolf: Chairman: The Honorable Chaka Fattah: Ranking Member: Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: Committee on Appropriations: House of Representatives: The Honorable Darrell E. Issa: Chairman: Committee on Oversight and Government Reform: House of Representatives: The Honorable Lamar Alexander: The Honorable John A. Barrasso: The Honorable Saxby Chambliss: The Honorable Thomas A. Coburn: The Honorable Susan M. Collins: The Honorable Michael D. Crapo: The Honorable Richard J. Durbin: The Honorable Lindsey O. Graham: The Honorable Orrin G. Hatch: The Honorable Kay Bailey Hutchison: The Honorable James M. Inhofe: The Honorable John H. Isakson: The Honorable Mike O. Johanns: The Honorable Richard G. Lugar: The Honorable Pat Roberts: The Honorable John R. Thune: The Honorable Roger F. Wicker: United States Senate: The Honorable Rush D. Holt: House of Representatives: [End of section] Appendix I: Objectives, Scope and Methodology: We addressed the following questions as part of our review: 1. From fiscal years 2005 through 2009, how much funding did federal agencies award to Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) or any potentially related organizations, and what was the purpose of the funding? 2. To what extent did federal agencies' monitoring of ACORN or potentially related organizations' use of federal funding detect issues identified by inspectors general and internal audits?[Footnote 47] 3. What federal investigations or prosecutions were conducted of ACORN or potentially related organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009, and what were the nature and results of these investigations and prosecutions? 4. How have federal agencies subject to fiscal year 2010 provisions barring the distribution of appropriated funds to ACORN or its affiliates, subsidiaries, or allied organizations implemented those provisions? Our scope for this report includes 31 federal agencies we determined might have awarded funding to ACORN or potentially related organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009 based on one or more of the following factors.[Footnote 48] (1) An audit was conducted by the agency's inspector general or internal audit unit of funding awarded to ACORN or potentially related organizations; (2) the agency participates in grants.gov, the primary Web site portal for organizations to apply for federal grants; or (3) the agency or its inspector general or internal audit unit received a congressional request to review ACORN or potentially related organizations. Table 8 identifies the federal agencies included in our report and the basis for inclusion. Table 8: Agency Characteristics That Indicate They Could Have Funded ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations: Federal agency: Agriculture; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Commerce; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Corporation for National and Community Service; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: Corporation for Public Broadcasting; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Check]; Included in grants.gov: [Empty]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Defense; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Education; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Election Assistance Commission; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Check]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: Energy; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Environmental Protection Agency; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Federal Election Commission; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Empty]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: Homeland Security; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Check]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: Health and Human Services; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Check]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Housing and Urban Development; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Check]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: Institute of Museum and Library Service; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Interior; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Justice; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Check]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: Labor; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: National Archives and Records Administration; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: National Endowment for the Arts; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: National Endowment for the Humanities; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: National Science Foundation; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: NeighborWorks; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Check]; Included in grants.gov: [Empty]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Small Business Administration; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: Social Security Administration; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: State; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Department of Transportation; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Department of Treasury; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Check]. Federal agency: United States Agency for International Development; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Federal agency: Department of Veterans Affairs; Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: [Empty]; Included in grants.gov: [Check]; Congressional review requested: [Empty]. Total: Agency inspector general or internal audit unit review conducted: 6; Included in grants.gov: 28; Congressional review requested: 10. Source: GAO analysis based on agency information. [End of table] Identifying Organizations Potentially Related to ACORN: We determined, as part of this review, whether an organization was potentially related to ACORN based on the organization's inclusion on various lists of organizations that may be related to ACORN and on our analysis of whether the organization shared any indicators of affiliation, which are described below. We did not determine whether an organization was actually related to ACORN due to several limitations--including lack of complete information--which are also discussed below. We began by conducting a literature review to identify existing lists of ACORN or potentially related organizations, and asked agencies and their inspectors general, and the Federal Audit Executive Council whether they had developed or were aware of any other lists.[Footnote 49] We identified a total of nine lists of organizations that could be part of ACORN or potentially related to ACORN from different sources: the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform,[Footnote 50] the Congressional Research Service,[Footnote 51] a Department of Justice (DOJ) Inspector General report,[Footnote 52] ACORN legal counsel, the Department of Labor (DOL) Inspector General, Senator Grassley's staff,[Footnote 53] the Small Business Administration (SBA) (which was provided to the SBA by the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform), and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Inspector General.[Footnote 54] We then included all the lists in one file, and provided the file--which contained names for 2,319 organizations--to Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) for further analysis. We selected D&B because it has the most comprehensive information on business entities of any source that we identified, and D&B maintains data on all DUNS numbers, which are required for federal contracts and grants, as specified by the Federal Acquisition Regulation and OMB guidance.[Footnote 55] Specifically, we asked D&B to (1) consolidate duplicate records into one unique record and (2) remove organizations that, with the information available, could not be confidently matched with a specific DUNS number (a nine-digit universal identifier assigned by D&B and used to apply for federal contracts, grants, cooperative agreements and other financial assistance). D&B also identified organizations potentially related to ACORN that had DUNS numbers based on research it independently conducted to identify organizations that were branches and subsidiaries of ACORN, which are considered by D&B to be part of the ACORN "family tree."[Footnote 56] As a result of D&B's analysis, a reduced list of 276 DUNS numbers associated with the unduplicated list of organization was identified. We validated the list D&B provided us by conducting our own search of D&B's Global Reference Solutions database (GRS) to determine if there were any additional DUNS numbers associated with these organizations that D&B did not include based on its analysis. Our validation resulted in an additional 37 DUNS numbers--a total of 313.[Footnote 57] One organization can be associated with several DUNS numbers, primarily when a branch of an organization has its own DUNS number. We asked each of the 31 agencies to search their grant and procurement files to determine if, from fiscal years 2005 through 2009, the agency awarded federal funding (or any of the agency's grantees provided subawards)--in the form of grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements--to any organizations linked with the 313 DUNS numbers. [Footnote 58] We also asked agencies and their inspectors general to search their investigative--and additionally for the Department of Justice their prosecutorial--case management systems to determine whether they conducted any investigations or prosecutions from fiscal years 2005 through 2009 of organizations linked with the 313 DUNS numbers. Using a set of indicators, which are described below, we compared organizations on the list that agencies identified as having funded, investigated, or prosecuted to organizations that were part of ACORN (including ACORN headquarters, branches in the D&B-generated ACORN family tree, and the ACORN organizations listed in the ACORN bankruptcy proceedings)[Footnote 59]. Table 9 includes the list of ACORN organizations that we used for comparison. Table 9: ACORN--Family Tree and ACORN Bankruptcy Identified Organizations: ACORN family tree: ACORN (Brooklyn); ACORN (Bronx); ACORN (Chicago); ACORN (Dallas); ACORN (Detroit); ACORN (Dorchester); ACORN (Flagstaff); ACORN (Houston); ACORN (Little Rock); ACORN (New Orleans); ACORN (Oakland); ACORN (Phoenix); ACORN (Pine Bluff); ACORN (San Diego); ACORN (Washington); Albuquerque ACORN; Alleghany County ACORN; Atlanta ACORN; Aurora ACORN; Baton Rouge ACORN; Boise ACORN; Bridgeport ACORN; Broward County ACORN; Charlotte ACORN; Chula Vista ACORN; Cincinnati ACORN; Cleveland ACORN; Columbus ACORN; Contra Costa ACORN; Denver ACORN; El Paso ACORN; Fresno ACORN; Glendale ACORN; Grand Rapids ACORN; Hartford ACORN; Irving ACORN; Kansas City ACORN; Lake Charles ACORN; Lake Worth ACORN; Long Island ACORN; Los Angeles ACORN; Maryland ACORN; Miami ACORN; Milwaukee ACORN; Minnesota ACORN; Mississippi ACORN; NW Indiana ACORN; Orange County ACORN; Orlando ACORN; Patterson ACORN; Philadelphia ACORN; Prince George's County ACORN; Raleigh ACORN; Rhode Island ACORN; Sacramento ACORN; San Antonio ACORN; San Bernardino ACORN; San Fernando Valley ACORN; San Francisco ACORN; San Jose ACORN; San Mateo County ACORN; St Louis ACORN; Suffolk ACORN; Topeka ACORN; Tucson ACORN; Wilmington ACORN; Washington ACORN. ACORN bankruptcy-identified organizations: Akron ACORN; Alabama ACORN; Allegheny Count ACORN; Arizona ACORN; Arkansas ACORN; Aurora ACORN; Baton Rouge ACORN; Bridgeport ACORN; Bronx/Manhattan ACORN; Broward County ACORN; Cincinnati ACORN; Colorado ACORN; Columbus ACORN; Connecticut ACORN; Contra Costa ACORN; Dallas ACORN; Dayton ACORN; DC ACORN; Delaware ACORN; Durham ACORN; El Paso ACORN; Everett ACORN; Flint ACORN; Florida ACORN; Fresno ACORN; Ft Worth ACORN; Georgia ACORN; Glendale ACORN; Grand Rapids ACORN; Harrisburg ACORN; Hawaii ACORN; Illinois ACORN; Indiana ACORN; Indianapolis ACORN; Iowa ACORN; Kansas City ACORN; Kentucky ACORN; Lake Charles ACORN; Lansing ACORN; Las Cruces ACORN; Lehigh Valley ACORN; Long Beach ACORN; Long Island ACORN; Los Angeles ACORN; Louisiana ACORN; Maryland ACORN; Massachusetts ACORN; Mesa ACORN; Michigan ACORN; Minnesota ACORN; Mississippi ACORN; Missouri ACORN; National ACORN; Nebraska ACORN; Nevada ACORN; New Jersey ACORN; New Mexico ACORN; New York ACORN; Newark ACORN; North Carolina ACORN; NY ACORN; Oakland ACORN; Ohio ACORN; Orange County ACORN; Oregon ACORN; Orlando ACORN; Palm Beach County ACORN; Patterson ACORN; Pennsylvania ACORN; Pine Bluff ACORN; Prince Georges County ACORN; Raleigh ACORN; Rhode Island ACORN; Rio Grand ACORN; Sacramento ACORN; San Antonio ACORN; San Bernardino ACORN; San Francisco ACORN; San Jose ACORN; San Diego ACORN; San Mateo County ACORN; South Bay San Diego ACORN; South Carolina ACORN; Springfield ACORN; Tacoma ACORN; Tennessee ACORN; Texas ACORN; Toledo ACORN; Tucson ACORN; Tulsa ACORN; Utah ACORN; Washington ACORN; Wisconsin ACORN. Source: GAO summary of ACORN organizations. [End of table] We used five indicators (where available) to determine for purposes of our report whether an organization was potentially related with a member of the ACORN family tree from fiscal years 2005 through 2009-- shared address, shared phone number, at least one executive or member of a board of directors in common, shared employer identification number (EIN), and shared bank accounts.[Footnote 60] These five indicators are data points that relate to various tests for determining whether a control relationship exists between entities, a control relationship is the basis for statutory and regulatory definitions of a "subsidiary" or "affiliate." Specifically, a "subsidiary" is a company in which half of its stock or a controlling interest is owned by another company or parent company. An "affiliate" is a person or entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another person or entity. Several of the definitions of "affiliate" we identified provided tests for determining control relationships between entities; whether an entity meets one or more of these tests does not necessarily mean there is a control relationship, but may suggest one, and there may be other factors that are relevant to determining whether control and thus, affiliation, exists. These tests include: *One entity controls at least a specific percentage of voting shares of the other entity; *An entity controls the election of a majority of the other entity's board of directors; *There is an overlap between a majority of the entities' board members; *An employment relationship exists between an entity and an individual; *An individual's business is operated by a debtor under a lease or operating agreement; *One entity has contributed more than twenty percent of the capital of the other; *Interlocking management or ownership; *Identity of interests among family members; *Shared facilities and equipment; *Common use of employees; or: *A business entity that has the same or similar management, ownership, or employees as a contractor that was previously debarred, suspended, or proposed for debarment. Our five indicators of affiliation reflect data available that relate to these tests. The presence of any one or more of the indicators does not necessarily mean there is a control relationship or affiliation. For example, if we identified data showing that a member of the ACORN board of directors was an executive of another company, we would identify that company as potentially related for purposes of this report. However, such a finding would not constitute a determination on our part that the company is an ACORN affiliate. We did not determine whether an organization was actually affiliated with ACORN during this time period because sufficient information was not available to make that determination for the various organizations within the scope of our review. For example, a full list of executives for fiscal years 2005 through 2009 for all ACORN branches was not available (particularly since some entities no longer exist). In this report, we only include organizations as potentially related that were funded, investigated, or prosecuted, and for which we found at least one indicator of potential affiliation. The information sources we used to obtain indicator information largely depended on whether the agency was able to confirm the DUNS number of the organization that it funded, investigated, or prosecuted.[Footnote 61] For funded organizations that agencies could link with a DUNS number--primarily direct awards--we collected indicator information from a range of sources, including D&B's databases (GRS and credit reports/business information reports), Recovery Act Accountability and Transparency Board, Guidestar, and D&B Duns Market Identifiers (Global) on Lexis-Nexis.[Footnote 62] We selected these information sources because they were the most comprehensive sources for indicator information we identified. Second, for funded organizations that agencies could not link with a DUNS number--primarily subawards--we contacted the direct grantees to ask if they could provide a DUNS number or any indicator information for the subawardee (The Office of Management and Budget [OMB] directed agencies to report subaward information, including DUNS numbers, starting in October 2010.)[Footnote 63] For the direct grantees that could provide indicator information, they generally provided the organization's address, phone number, or the name of an executive. We were not able to obtain indicator information on all subgrantees; consequently, limited information was available for those organizations to establish potential affiliation with ACORN. For organizations that were investigated or prosecuted, agencies reported no DUNS numbers. To obtain indicator information on these organizations, we searched the investigation or case materials and requested indicator information from the agency reporting the investigation or prosecution. As with subaward recipients, we matched the organizations involved in investigations to organizations with the same name to the extent possible where they had at least the same name and shared at least one indicator of affiliation. Tables 10 and 11, respectively, document the indicator analysis we conducted for funded organizations for which agencies could identify a DUNS number, and funded organizations for which agencies could not identify a DUNS number (but information was available from the grant document or direct grantee to identify an indicator). Our tables distinguish between instances where there was not information available to compare with ACORN indicators (signified with "-") and instances where there was information available to make the comparison, but no match was found (the cell is blank). Of the organizations that agencies identified as having funded, we found at least one indicator of affiliation for all but four organizations. [Footnote 64] Table 10: Indicators of Potential Affiliation with ACORN: Organizations Identified by DUNS Number that Received Federal Funding from Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Organization: ACORN Associates, Inc. (also referred to as ACORN Albuquerque); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009. Organization: ACORN Community Land Association of Louisiana, Inc.; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: [Empty]. Organization: ACORN Housing Corporation (AHC) (Baltimore); Shared address: [Empty]; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Institute (Columbus, OH); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Institute (Washington, D.C.); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: Organization: Agape Broadcasting Foundation (KNON-FM); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Chicago); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: [Empty]. Organization: American Environmental Justice Project, Inc.; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: Arkansas Broadcasting Foundation (KABF-FM); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: [Empty]. Organization: Arkansas Community Housing Corporation; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: Missouri Tax Justice Research Project; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: [Empty]. Organization: New Mexico ACORN Fair Housing Corporation; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: [Empty]. Organization: New York Agency for Community Affairs; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: [Empty]. Organization: Project Vote; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: Tides Center[A]; Shared address: [Empty]; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in Common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: [Empty]. Source: GAO analysis of indicator data. Legend: [Empty] = no shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; [A] One executive for ACORN was also one of multiple board members of the Tides Center until 2009. According to Tides Center representatives, this board member recused himself from voting on issues related to ACORN and did not have managerial responsibilities at the Tides Center. The former attorney for ACORN stated that although the Tides Foundation (which Tides Center was once a part of) may have acted as a fiscal agent on some grants to ACORN, it had no affiliation with ACORN and was entirely separate. [End of table] Table 11: Indicators of Potential Affiliation with ACORN: Organizations Identified other than by DUNS Number that Received Federal Funding from Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Organization: ACORN Albuquerque; Shared address: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Beverly, LLC; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Bridgeport; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Contra Costa; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN (El Paso); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Hartford; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Institute (New Orleans); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Institute (St. Louis); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Las Cruces; Shared address: Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Maryland; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Oakland; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN San Francisco; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: [Empty]; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN San Mateo; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Baltimore); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Bridgeport); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Chicago); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Houston)[A]; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Kansas City); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Miami); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (New Orleans); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC New York; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Oakland); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC of Pennsylvania; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (St. Louis); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (St. Paul); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: American Institute for Social Justice (Denver); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: American Institute for Social Justice (Washington, D.C.); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: Arizona AHC; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: Arkansas ACORN; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: Arkansas Broadcasting Foundation (KABF-FM); Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: MHANY Management, Inc; Shared address: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Source: GAO analysis of indicator data. Legend: [Empty] = no shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through FY2009: [A] The indicator information available in the grant documentation for AHC (Houston) does not match with ACORN. We included this organization because the databases we consulted as part of our indicator analysis reflect that it is the same organization as "ACORN Housing (Houston)," which was involved in a DOL investigation and shares an indicator of affiliation with ACORN. [End of table] Table 12 documents the indicator analysis we conducted for the organizations involved in investigations, prosecutions, cases, and matters identified by DOJ, the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and DOL for which the agencies did not have DUNS numbers available for these organizations. Similar to tables 10 and 11, table 12 distinguishes between instances where there was not information available to compare with ACORN indicators (signified with "-") and instances where there was information available to make the comparison, but no match was found (the cell is blank). We did not identify any indicators of affiliation for the organizations involved in 22 of the 44 investigations or cases identified by agencies. [Footnote 66] Table 12: Indicators of Potential Affiliation with ACORN: Organizations or Their Employees Investigated or Prosecuted by DOJ, FBI, FEC or DOL, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Organization: ACORN[A]; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN[A]; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN[A]; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN, Inc.[A]; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN[A]; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: Shared EIN: Shared bank account: Organization: ACORN[A]; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Associates; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN (Columbus); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: Organization: ACORN (Dorchester); Shared address: Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Housing (Houston); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: [Empty]; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN Housing (Kansas City); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN (Miami); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN (Newark); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared bank account: Organization: ACORN (New Orleans); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN (St. Louis)[B]; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN (St. Louis)[B]; Shared address: Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: ACORN (Tucson); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: no information available to support indicator analysis; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: AHC (Oakland); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: Citizens Consulting, Inc.; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: Project Vote[C]; Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: SEIU; Shared address: Shared phone number: Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Organization: SEIU Local 100 (New Orleans); Shared address: Yes; Shared phone number: [Empty]; Executive(s) or director(s) in common: shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009; Shared EIN: no information available to support indicator analysis; Shared bank account: no information available to support indicator analysis. Source: GAO analysis of indicator data. Legend: [Empty] = no shared indicator with ACORN fiscal years 2005 through 2009: [A] For the "ACORN" organizations listed without a city, the agency that provided these investigations requested that we not name the cities in our report. [B] ACORN (St. Louis) is involved in separate investigations or cases. It is listed twice because we could not verify that this is the same organization based on the indicator information available. [C] The indicator information available in the case and investigation materials for "Project Vote" do not match with ACORN. We included this organization because the information available indicates that this organization is the same as the funded organization named "Project Vote," which shares an indicator of affiliation with ACORN. [End of table] Objectives Methodology: To identify funding awarded to ACORN or potentially related organizations and the purpose of this funding, we asked 31 federal agencies to identify grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements awarded as a direct award, or to the extent possible, subawards, to a list of ACORN or potentially related organizations for fiscal years 2005 through 2009.[Footnote 67] We requested information on federal funding that was awarded to ACORN or potentially related organizations, without regard to how much of the total award amount was actually disbursed to the organizations. We requested and reviewed documentation from selected agency grantees regarding funding that was provided as subawards (grants or contracts awarded by the direct recipient of federal funds to another organization) to ACORN or potentially related organizations. For those agencies that relied on databases to identify any ACORN funding, we requested information that would enable us to determine whether the databases were reliable for our purposes. We assessed the reliability of agency databases used to search for funding by reviewing agencies' annual financial statements and agency responses to questions regarding the integrity of those databases. We determined that the databases were reliable for our purposes. To determine the extent to which agencies' monitoring processes captured issues identified by audits, we obtained and reviewed relevant inspector general and internal audit reports from the six agencies--CPB, DHS, HUD, DOJ, EAC, and NeighborWorks--that provided direct funding to ACORN or potentially related organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009 and whose Inspectors General or internal audit units had conducted evaluations of these organizations for the same time period.[Footnote 68] We also reviewed these reports and found the conclusions and recommendations drawn in each report to be appropriate based on methodologies used. In addition, we obtained and reviewed information from these six, as well as the other seven agencies that reported providing direct awards, on their protocols for monitoring how ACORN or potentially related organizations used federal funds and whether these organizations complied with the terms of their grant agreements. We interviewed agency officials regarding their monitoring activities and the extent to which their monitoring processes were designed to capture the issues identified in the audits, when relevant. We asked grant program and financial managers and staff to identify any changes made to their monitoring processes due to the audit findings. We reviewed the extent to which agencies' applied their monitoring processes to funding awarded to ACORN or potentially related organizations, whether these processes captured findings from the audits, and identified any changes made by the agency as a result of the review findings. To identify investigations of ACORN or potentially related organizations, we asked DOJ--including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and DOJ litigating divisions[Footnote 69]--as well as the 31 agencies and the investigative components of the Inspectors General for those 31 agencies to identify any investigations or prosecutions they have conducted related to the organizations on our search list from fiscal years 2005 through 2009.[Footnote 70] [Footnote 71] The Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA)[Footnote 72] searched its case management system, the Legal Information Office Network System (LIONS) to determine if any of the organizations identified on our search list had been the subject of an investigation or case handled by any of DOJ's 94 U.S. Attorneys Offices (USAO). [Footnote 73] Cases in which the prosecuted party was an individual (rather than an organization) were identified by EOUSA from responses it received pursuant to a request made to all USAOs to identify all cases related to ACORN. In addition to investigations or cases identified by DOJ, the FEC identified matters involving federal election law and DOL identified wage and hour disputes that they have jurisdiction to investigate. We assessed the reliability of the data that EOUSA, FBI, DOL, and FEC used to search for the investigations and prosecutions they reported to us by reviewing information provided about their systems, and found the data to be reliable for our purposes. Agencies used name searches to identify cases in their systems, which is not as precise a method of searching as by number, so there is a potential that some cases may have been missed using this method. To address objective 4, we asked officials representing 27 out of the 31 agencies within our scope that are subject to 2010 appropriations provisions that prohibit funding to ACORN or related organizations to describe and provide documentation of the actions agencies took to implement the applicable provisions. Various appropriations acts for fiscal year 2010 restricted 27 of the 31 federal agencies in our review from providing funding to ACORN and certain related entities; these provisions are listed in appendix IV. Four agencies in our scope--DHS, Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-- were not subject to 2010 appropriations provisions that restrict funding to ACORN and related organizations. Executive agencies are required to establish and maintain systems of accounting and internal controls that reasonably ensure compliance with applicable law, with the control activities established by management of the audited agency.[Footnote 74] An analyst and legal counsel reviewed the actions described and agreed on categories that encompassed the actions. Also, since we are only identifying organizations in this report that are potentially related, but which may not be actually related to ACORN, we are not making a determination that any organization named in this report falls within the scope of any ACORN funding restriction. Agencies are responsible for ensuring that they are implementing their applicable appropriations statutes properly.[Footnote 75] We conducted this performance audit from August 2010 through June 2011 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. [End of section] Appendix II: Monitoring Activities of Direct Grant Programs Conducted by Agencies, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Table 13 shows the monitoring activities reported by the 13 agencies that provided direct funding to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) or potentially related organizations from fiscal years 2005 through 2009.[Footnote 76] Table 13: Monitoring Activities of Direct Awards Conducted by Agencies, Fiscal Years 2005 through 2009: Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB): Award program: Community Service Grant; Awarded organization: KABF-FM; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Empty]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Award program: Community Service Grant; Awarded organization: KNON-FM; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Empty]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Award program: Internet Acquisition Grant; Awarded organization: KABF-FM; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Empty]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Award program: Internet Acquisition Grant; Awarded organization: KNON-FM; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Empty]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Award program: Direct Radio Conversion Fund; Awarded organization: KNON-FM; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Empty]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Department of Agriculture (USDA): Funding agency/office or division: Risk Management Agency; Award program: Community Outreach and Assistance Partnership Program; Awarded organization: The Tides Center; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Agricultural Marketing Service; Award program: Farmers Market Promotion Program; Awarded organization: The Tides Center; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Department of Defense (DOD)[B]: Funding agency/office or division: National Security Agency[C]; Award program: OneWorld Now! Summer Language Camp and After School Classes; Awarded organization: The Tides Center; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Check]; Site observation: [Check]. Department of Education (Education): Award program: Fund for the Improvement of Education; Awarded organization: The Tides Center; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Empty]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS): Funding agency/office or division: Office of Refugee Settlement; Award program: Comprehensive Torture Treatment Services and Capacity Building Project; Awarded organization: The Tides Center; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Department of Homeland Security (DHS): Funding agency/office or division: Federal Emergency Management Agency; Award program: Fire Prevention and Safety Grant; Awarded organization: ACORN Institute; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Empty]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): Funding agency/office or division: Office of Community Planning and Development; Award program: Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program; Awarded organization: AHC; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Federal Housing Administration; Award program: Housing Counseling Grant; Awarded organization: AHC; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Check]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: AHC; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: Arkansas Community Housing; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: New York Agency for Community Affairs (NYACA); Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Check]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: ACORN Community Land Association of LA, Inc.; [Empty]; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: New Mexico ACORN Fair Housing; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Empty]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Check]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: ACORN Associates, Inc; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Check]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: American Institute for Social Justice; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: American Environmental Justice Project; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Empty]; Review of financial information: [Empty]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: Missouri Tax Justice Research Project; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity; Award program: Fair Housing Initiatives Program; Awarded organization: ACORN Institute; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control; Award program: Lead Elimination Action Program; Awarded organization: ACORN Associates, Inc.; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Check]; Site observation: [Check]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Public and Indian Housing; Award program: Resident Opportunities and Self Sufficiency; Awarded organization: NYACA; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Public and Indian Housing; Award program: Resident Opportunities and Self Sufficiency; Awarded organization: ACORN Institute; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Department of Justice (DOJ): Funding agency/office or division: Office of Justice Programs; Award program: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Grant; Awarded organization: NYACA; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Funding agency/office or division: Office of Justice Programs; Award program: Trafficking Task Forces and Victim Services Program; Awarded organization: The Tides Center; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Check]; Site observation: [Check]. Department of State (DOS)[D]: Department of Transportation (DOT): Funding agency/office or division: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; Award program: Technical Assistance Grant; Awarded organization: The Tides Center; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Check]; Site observation: [Empty]. Election Assistance Commission (EAC): Award program: Help America Vote College Program, College Poll Worker Grants; Awarded organization: Project Vote (Delaware); Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Empty]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. Award program: Help America Vote College Program, College Poll Worker Grants; Awarded organization: Project Vote (Michigan); Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Empty]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): Award program: Cooperative Research in Planetary Astronomy; Awarded organization: The Tides Center; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Empty]; Communication with grantee staff: [Empty]; Review of expenditures: [Empty]; Site observation: [Empty]. NeighborWorks (NW): Award program: National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program; Awarded organization: AHC; Monitoring activities[A]: Review of progress report: [Check]; Review of financial information: [Check]; Review of work plans or other audit reports: [Check]; Communication with grantee staff: [Check]; Review of expenditures: [Check]; Site observation: [Check]. Source: GAO analysis of agency data. [A] As part of the monitoring activities, a review of progress report could include a quarterly, biannually, or final report, with agency officials reviewing the grantee-provided progress report. Review of financial information includes reviewing the financial report. Review of workplans or other audit reports consists of agency officials reviewing the scope of grantee's work or other audit reports (such as inspector general or Single Audit reports) related to the grantee. Communication with grantee staff includes both in person interview, telephone, e-mail, and mail communication. Review of expenditures includes receipts or invoices of funds used. Site observation includes on-site program and financial observations by agency grant mangers and staff. [B] DOD Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Tides Center for a feasibility study of selected near-shore marine areas of Puget in fiscal year 2005 for the amount of $132,785. An Army of Corps of Engineers official stated that the contract has been closed and file documents with information on monitoring have been destroyed per records retention policy and thus, are not available. However, the official stated that there were no apparent problems as evidenced by full payment and no evidence of contract termination. [C] DOD NSA official indicated that the Office of Naval Research received delegation authority to review and certify invoices for NSA grants and NSA grant office receives a copy of each certified invoice and maintains it in the grant file. [D] DOS awarded a direct grant to ACORN or a potentially related organization; however, because the nature of the grant is sensitive, details of the grant are not included in this report. [End of table] [End of section] Appendix III: Federal Provisions Restricting Funding to ACORN and Related Organizations and Related Court Case: Congress passed provisions restricting the funding of ACORN or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, or allied organizations in the fiscal year 2010 continuing resolutions (CR).[Footnote 77] In order to direct agencies implementation of this restriction, OMB issued guidance that called for agencies to take steps to comply with the restriction, such as suspending existing grants and contracts with ACORN or related organizations and notifying all federal grant and contract recipients of the restrictions, among other actions.[Footnote 78] Subsequently, Congress passed several fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts that prohibited 27 agencies in our review from providing appropriated funds to ACORN or various ACORN-related organizations.[Footnote 79] For 3 of these agencies, the restrictions contained in their fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts covered the same organizations as the 2010 CRs, i.e., ACORN or its subsidiaries, affiliates, or allied organizations. For the other 24 agencies, the restrictions contained in the fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts applied only to ACORN or its subsidiaries Table 14 identifies the restriction provisions for the 27 agencies within the scope of our review that are subject to ACORN-related restrictions. Table 14: Fiscal Year 2010 Appropriations Act Restrictions on Funding ACORN and Other Entities for 27 of the 31 Agencies Reviewed: Name of Federal Agency: Department of Commerce (Commerce); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. B., 534, 123 Stat. 3034, 3157 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Education (Education); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Defense (DOD); Restriction: Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-118, 8123, 123 Stat. 3409, 3458 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Interior (DOI); Restriction: Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-88, Div. A, 427, 123 Stat. 2904, 2962 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Transportation (DOT); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. A., 418, 123 Stat. 3034, 3112 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, allied organizations. Name of Federal Agency: Department of State (STATE); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Restriction: Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-88, div. A, 427, 123 Stat. 2904, 2962 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Federal Election Commission (FEC); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Justice (DOJ); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. B., 534, 123 Stat. 3034, 3157 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Labor (DOL); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Treasury (Treasury) (including the IRS); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Election Assistance Commission (EAC); Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. A., 418, 123 Stat. 3034, 3112 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, allied organizations. Name of Federal Agency: Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Small Business Administration (SBA); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: NeighborWorks; Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. A., 418, 123 Stat. 3034, 3112 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, allied organizations. Name of Federal Agency: Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009)[A]; Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: National Science Foundation (NSF); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. B., 534, 123 Stat. 3034, 3157 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Institute of Museum and Library Service (IMLS); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: National Endowment for the Arts (NEA); Restriction: Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-88, Div. A, 427, 123 Stat. 2904, 2962 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH); Restriction: Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-88, Div. A, 427, 123 Stat. 2904, 2962 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. B., 534, 123 Stat. 3034, 3157 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: Social Security Administration (SSA); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Name of Federal Agency: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); Restriction: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111- 117, div. E., 511, 123 Stat. 3034, 3311 (2009); Entities within Scope of Restriction: ACORN or its subsidiaries. Source: GAO Analysis of agency appropriations acts. Note: Our review disclosed that DHS, Department of Energy, Department of Agriculture, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were not subject to FY2010 appropriations provisions that restrict funding to ACORN and related organizations. [A] The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, provided funds to CPB for fiscal year 2012, as well as additional funds for specified purposes for 2010, for example, for public radio and television fiscal stabilization grants. Pub. L. No. 111-117, 123 Stat. 3034, 3274 (2009). [End of table] ACORN and other plaintiffs filed suit against the United States claiming that the restrictions in the 2010CR were unconstitutional. [Footnote 80] The federal district court preliminarily enjoined the ACORN appropriations restriction contained in the fiscal year 2010 CRs; the CRs also then expired.[Footnote 81] The ACORN plaintiffs amended their complaint to added the additional appropriations restrictions in the fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts that prohibited any appropriated funds from being awarded to ACORN and other related organizations. The court ruled that these restrictions were unconstitutional and enjoined their enforcement on March 10, 2010;[Footnote 82] the court also ordered OMB to rescind its guidance to agencies for implementing the 2010CR as well as inform agencies of the court's ruling, which OMB did.[Footnote 83] The Department of Justice filed an appeal to the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and was granted a stay of the lower court's decision on April 2, 2010, which meant the restrictions would remain in effect while the appeal was being considered.[Footnote 84] The Second Circuit then reversed the district court such that the restrictions have continued to remain in effect.[Footnote 85] Accordingly, the appropriations restrictions have been in effect since April 2, 2010.[Footnote 86] OMB did not issue additional guidance to agencies on the implementation of the restrictions contained in the fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts; however, OMB added a note to the guidance it issued after the district court found the restrictions unconstitutional stating the Second Circuit had issued a stay and that restrictions remained in force. Figure 1 shows the timeline of actions related to ACORN v. United States. Figure 1: Timeline of Actions Related to ACORN v. United States: [Refer to PDF for image: timeline] Acorn litigation: October 1, 2009: Continuing (CR) resolution enacted. November 12, 2009: ACORN and other plaintiffs file suit. December 11, 2009: Federal district court temporarily blocks the restriction in the CR. March 10, 2010: Federal district court permanently blocks the restrictions in the CR and regular appropriations acts. April 2, 2010: Second Circuit grants an administrative stay of the district court‘s ruling. April 21, 2010: Second Circuit grants a stay of the district court‘s ruling pending appeal. August 13, 2010: Second Circuit reverses district court. February 22, 2011: Plaintiffs file a petition for a writ of certiorari with the United States Supreme Court. OMB: October 7, 2009: OMB issues guidance to agencies. December 14, 2009: OMB notifies the Offices of the General Counsel at Federal agencies of the Federal district court‘s order. March 16, 2010: OMB rescinds guidance and informs agencies of the court‘s ruling. April 2, 2010: OMB notifies the Offices of the General Counsel at Federal agencies that the Second Circuit has granted an administrative stay. April 23, 2010: OMB notifies the Offices of the General Counsel at Federal agencies that the Second Circuit has issued the stay pending appeal. May 19, 2010: OMB notifies interagency members of the Budget Officers Advisory Committee at a meeting about the April 21, 2010 stay (and on May 26th by email). May 21, 2010: OMB adds a note to its guidance regarding the stay and noting that restrictions are in effect. Source: GAO analysis of court and OMB documents. [End of figure] [End of section] Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Acknowledgments: GAO Contact: Eileen R. Larence, (202) 512-8777 or larencee@gao.gov. Acknowledgments: In addition to the contact named above, Kristy Brown, Assistant Director, and Monica Kelly, Analyst-In-Charge, managed this assignment. Leyla Kazaz, Julian King, Kimberly McGatlin, Lara Miklozek, Amanda Miller, Diane Morris, Janet Temko, Robert Wilson, and Su Jin Yon made significant contributions to this report. Sylvia Bascope, Sunny Chang, Colleen Candrl, Christine Davis, Francis Dymond, Richard Eiserman, Cheron Green, Barbara Guffy, Brandon Jones, Daniel Klabunde, Susanna Kuebler, Mathew Scire, and Thomas Short also provided valuable assistance. [End of section] Footnotes: [1] The term "potentially related organizations" is used in this report to encompass organizations where there is at least one indicator, such as a shared address with ACORN, that the organization may be related to ACORN. [2] NeighborWorks is the trade name used by the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation, which was established in 1978 by federal law as a nonprofit corporation. See 42 U.S.C. 8102. To streamline the discussion in this report we use the term "audits" to encompass the work of the five Inspectors General and NeighborWorks' internal audit unit, which performs a similar function for that agency. In addition, while both CPB and NeighborWorks are federally chartered, private nonprofit organizations, for purposes of this report we refer to both as "agencies." See 42 U.S.C. 8102, 47 U.S.C. 396. [3] The restrictions contained in most fiscal year 2010 annual appropriations acts continue to be in effect for fiscal year 2011 under the terms of the continuing resolutions enacted. Pub. L. No. 111- 242, 101, 124 Stat. 2607 (2010); Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, Pub. L. No. 112-10, Div. B, 1101, 1105. [4] In re ACORN, No. 10-50380 (Bankr. E.D.N.Y. Nov. 2, 2010). We continued our work for this final ACORN report because the time frame for our work on funding and monitoring--fiscal years 2005-2009, was prior to ACORN's bankruptcy filing. Further, objective 4 looks at agency processes for restricting funding to ACORN and related organizations, organizations which may or may not be included as part of the bankruptcy proceedings. [5] Pub. L. No. 111-117, Div. B, 535, 123 Stat. 3034, 3157. [6] GAO, Preliminary Observations on Funding, Oversight, and Investigations and Prosecutions of ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations, [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-648R] (Washington, D.C.: June 14, 2010). [7] A DUNS number, which is assigned by D&B, is a unique identifier for a business location. Federal agencies require that an organization obtain a DUNS number to be eligible to receive direct federal funding. [8] Related organizations could also include affiliates or allied organizations. However, D&B's ACORN family tree--which includes organizations that are considered to be part of ACORN--only consists of branches and subsidiaries. ACORN's attorney provided information on organizations that are ACORN chapters or share a mission with ACORN, information that was incorporated into our analysis; however, a list of affiliates was not provided, and ACORN has since declared bankruptcy. [9] Our comparison to ACORN included a comparison with ACORN headquarters, ACORN branches, as identified by the D&B-generated ACORN family tree, and the ACORN organizations listed in the ACORN bankruptcy proceedings. [10] Specifically, a "subsidiary" is a company in which half of its stock or a controlling interest is owned by another company or parent company. An "affiliate" is a person or entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another person or entity. Several of the definitions of "affiliate" we identified provided tests for determining control relationships between entities; whether an entity meets one or more of these tests does not necessarily mean there is a control relationship, but may suggest one, and there may be other factors that are relevant to determining whether control, and thus affiliation, exists. [11] The DOJ litigating divisions we queried included Civil, Environment and Natural Resources, Antitrust, Civil Rights, Criminal, Tax, National Security, and the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys. The default rule is that DOJ is responsible for all litigation on behalf of the United States and its administrative agencies; accordingly, in general, agencies must refer investigations to DOJ for prosecution. 28 U.S.C. 516, 519; 5 U.S.C. 3106. However, there are certain exceptions where agencies have civil litigation authority; for example, the Federal Election Commission has the authority to bring enforcement actions for violations of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, as amended. 2 U.S.C. 437c, 437d. [12] 31 U.S.C. 3512(c), commonly referred to as the Federal Managers' Financial Integrity Act of 1982. Agencies' systems of internal control must be consistent with the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1] (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 1999). [13] See GAO, Principles of Federal Appropriations Law, vol. 1, 3rd ed., [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-04-261SP] (Washington, D.C.: January 2004), 1-35. "Every federal department or agency has the initial and fundamental responsibility to ensure that its application of public funds adheres to the terms of the pertinent authorization and appropriation acts, as well as any other relevant statutory provisions." [14] In our prior report, we identified approximately $40 million that was awarded to ACORN and potentially related organizations, as identified by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). However, for this report, we did not rely exclusively on the CRS list, but instead conducted our own analysis to identify organizations that are part of or potentially related to ACORN. As a result, we identified additional organizations that received federal funding and had at least one indicator of possible affiliation with ACORN. Further, agencies included in our review provided information on additional awards that they had not provided to us for our prior report. [15] Pub. L. No. 109-282, 120 Stat. 1186. [16] Subawards are to be reported for awards over $25,000 beginning October 1, 2010, with a goal of 100 percent complete and accurate reporting by the end of the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2011. Our data collection period preceded the goal for full reporting, so we chose to ask agencies directly for this information, and also to capture funding below the reporting threshold. [17] DUNS numbers are required for reporting subaward information to USAspending.gov starting October 1, 2010. [18] OMB Circular No. A-110, Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations. [19] [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-648R]. [20] 47 U.S.C. 396(k)(3)(A)(i)(I). [21] FEMA officials stated that for the Fire Prevention and Safety grant, high dollar amount was about $1 million. [22] Seventeen of the 31agencies in our scope identified funding to ACORN or a potentially related organization; 13 agencies awarded funding directly (3 also provided subawards), and an additional 4 agencies identified only subawards (EPA, NEA, NEH, and Treasury). [23] The inspector general offices at DHS, HUD, and DOJ received an additional congressional request in August 2010 to conduct a review of ACORN or potentially related organizations. According to a DHS Inspector General official, the office was already conducting an audit of ACORN Institute when it received the additional request; therefore, the office incorporated the results from the additional request into the ACORN Institute report. See Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, DHS Financial Assistance to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) and Its Affiliates (Washington, D.C., 2010). A HUD Inspector General official stated that the office did not have adequate information to conduct an audit in response to the additional request. The DOJ Inspector General's audit was not issued as of May 31, 2011. [24] HUD refers to five division offices that conduct different monitoring processes based on the programs for which they are responsible. These five division offices consist of: Community Planning and Development (CPD), Federal Housing Administration (FHA), Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO), Public and Indian Housing (PIH), and Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (Healthy Homes). [25] CPB officials did not identify changes in monitoring processes, as they continue to be subject to a cap on administrative costs. [26] Webinars refer to technical assistance seminars transmitted over the Internet. [27] These agencies provided us with information on cases, matters, and investigations. The term "case" refers to an investigation that has resulted in the filing of some legal action in court such as an activity that has been assigned an identification number that has resulted in the filing of a complaint, an indictment, or information in court. The terms "matter" or "investigation" are used to identify investigations which are activities that have been assigned identification numbers, but which, for a variety of reasons--typically lack of sufficient evidence--have been closed without resulting in the filing of a complaint, an indictment, or information in court--for example, the investigation of a complaint or an allegation of discrimination referred by another federal agency. The agencies did not provide information on "open" investigations. [28] The IG for the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) responded for its agency and for the IMLS, as it is responsible for both agencies. Also, the U.S. Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA) identified 11 tax-preparer investigations, but could not provide us indicator information to establish potential affiliation for the investigated organizations because 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code precludes them from providing such data. These investigations generally concerned loss or theft of information technology assets, fraud, theft, or embezzlement of refunds. TIGTA did not search its other agency records because 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code prohibits the disclosure of taxpayer information by the Internal Revenue Service, except in specifically enumerated circumstances. [29] An additional 5 closed cases were identified by EOUSA and included in our preliminary report; however, they are not included in this report because indicators for the organizations involved, including address, phone number, and executives as provided by EOUSA, did not match with indicators for ACORN. We identified an additional case for which the original indictment indicated that the defendant was employed by ACORN; however, superseding information stated that the defendant was employed by another not-for profit organization. Therefore, we did not include this case in our report. [30] Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, Pub. L No. 92-255, 86 Stat. 3 (1972), as amended. FEC included only matters in which ACORN or a related entity (as identified in a congressional request to the FEC dated August 11, 2009) were respondents. Because pending FEC matters are confidential, the FEC's response was also limited to matters that were closed and publicly available. [31] Disgorgement refers to the act of giving up something (such as profits illegally obtained) on demand or by legal compulsion. [32] A conciliation, as defined by DOL, is a compliance action limited to the correction of minor violations involving last paychecks, or a single issue affecting one or a few employees, in which Wage and Hour division staff seeks resolution between the employer and the complainant with a minimal expenditure of enforcement time. As noted in the table, DOL reported limited and full investigations. A limited investigation, as defined by DOL, is a comprehensive compliance action that includes all of the elements found in a full investigation, but is narrowed in scope to a specific department, employment practice, time frame, classification of employees, individual government contract or section of an act. A full investigation, as defined by DOL, is a comprehensive compliance action that examines all aspects of an employer's compliance with a particular Wage and Hour Act(s) for the full 2-year or other applicable maximum period. [33] DHS, NRC, DOE, and USDA were not subject to ACORN funding restrictions in their respective annual appropriations acts. [34] 31 U.S.C. 3512(c)(1): OMB Circular A-123. [35] 31 U.S.C. 1514(a)(1). Because both CPB and NeighborWorks are private, nonprofit corporations, they are not subject to the same restrictions and controls on their expenditures as are government agencies. See B-131935, Mar. 18, 1986; see also B-308037, Sept. 17, 2006. However, appropriations made available to those agencies are subject to restrictions in appropriations acts. B-131935; B-320329. [36] Guidance on section 163 of the Continuing Resolution regarding the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), OMB Memorandum M-10-02. [37] In December 2009, Congress passed fiscal year 2010 appropriations acts with ACORN-related appropriations restrictions. The United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York ruled on March 10, 2010 that funding restrictions regarding ACORN and related entities are unconstitutional and prevented them from going into effect. ACORN v. United States, 692 F. Supp. 2nd 260 (E.D.N.Y. 2010). On March 16, 2010, OMB issued M-10-12 informing agencies of the Federal District Court's decision. The Department of Justice filed an appeal to the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and was granted an administrative stay of the lower court's decision on April 2, 2010, and then a stay pending the appeal. ACORN v. United States, Nos. 09- 5172, 10-992, slip op. (2nd Cir. Apr. 21, 2010). In response, OMB added a note on May 21, 2010, stating that per the stay granted by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, the FY 2010 appropriations acts remain in force during the pendency of the stay (OMB M-10-12, Washington, D.C.: March 16, 2010). On August 13, 2010, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the Federal District Court's decision and remanded the case for further proceedings on First Amendment and due process claims. On February 22, 20l1, plaintiffs filed a petition for a writ of certiorari with the United States Supreme Court seeking to have the case heard, and on May 9, 2011, the District Court stayed the proceedings until the Supreme Court has ruled on plaintiffs' petition. [38] HUD based its determination that AHCOA is not subject to its restriction on a review of the legal definitions for "subsidiary," "affiliate," and "allied organization," and a review of documents provided by AHCOA regarding its business structure as of the time of the restriction. [39] B-320329, Sept. 29, 2010. NeighborWorks America--Availability of Appropriations for Grants to Affordable Housing Centers of America. GAO concluded that AHCOA, as constituted September 2010, is not an affiliate, subsidiary, or allied organization of ACORN because the two entities are not currently financially or organizationally related; accordingly, AHCOA does not currently fall within the scope of section 418 of the Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010. Id. GAO's Office of the General Counsel is responsible for providing decisions on the use and obligation of appropriated funds, separate from GAO's statutory authority to investigate matters related to the use of public money and evaluate the results of programs and activities carried out by the government. See 31 U.S.C. 712, 717, 3529. GAO may issue decisions when requested by disbursing officers, certifying officers, or the heads of federal agencies and agency components, who may be uncertain whether they have authority to make, or authorize the making of, particular payments. [40] USASpending.gov is a free, publicly accessible Web site established by the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 that contains data on awards from federal agencies (e.g., contracts, loans, grants, and subawards beginning October 2010). Funding restrictions contained in appropriations acts for fiscal year 2010 continued to be in place for fiscal year 2011 for agencies operating under continuing resolutions. As we have previously discussed, the presence of any one or more indicators may be suggestive of a control relationship, and thus, affiliation, but does not mean that an entity is affiliated with ACORN. In addition, some agencies are prohibited from providing funds to ACORN and its affiliates, subsidiaries, and allied organizations, while other agencies are prohibited from providing funds to ACORN or its subsidiaries only. [41] See GAO, Electronic Government: Implementation of the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-365] (Washington, D.C.: March 12, 2010). GAO identified some data inconsistencies with USAspending.gov and agency records in a random sample of 100 awards, most commonly in the purpose of the award and city where the work was performed. As subaward information was not required to be reported until after this report was issued, the completeness of subaward reporting was not reviewed. [42] An executive of ACORN who served on the board of directors of the Tides Center from 1995 through 2008 left the Tides Center Board in 2009. No other indicators of affiliation with ACORN were identified. [43] GAO, B-320329, GAO determined that as of September 2010, AHCOA was not an affiliate, subsidiary, or allied organization of ACORN and does not fall within the scope of section 418 of the Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010. Pub. L. No. 111-117. [44] A draft was sent to CNCS, CPB, DOC, DOD, DHS, DOI, DOJ, DOL, DOS, DOT, EAC, Education, EPA, FEC, HHS, HUD, IMLS, NARA, NASA, NEA, NEH, NeighborWorks, NSF, SBA, SSA, Treasury, USAID, USDA, and VA. We did not request comment from two agencies, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy, because they did not identify any funding to ACORN and potentially related organizations during our time frame and had no related funding restrictions in their appropriations acts. [45] A copy of the draft report was sent to: the attorney formerly representing ACORN; the Tides Center; AHCOA; Project Vote; the Agape Broadcasting Foundation; the Arkansas Broadcasting Foundation; ACORN Community Land Association of Louisiana, Inc.; MHANY Management, Inc.; and the New York Agency for Community Affairs. Contact information was not available to send the draft report to the remaining third parties. [46] Agencies that reviewed the draft and had no comment included DOC, DOS, DOJ, DHS, Treasury, EAC, HUD, NSF, NEA, NEH, NASA, SSA, and USDA. [47] We use the term "audit" to encompass the work of the five inspectors general and NeighborWorks' internal audit unit, which performs a similar function for that agency. [48] For the purposes of this report, we use the term federal "agency" to encompass federal entities that include selected federal executive departments, independent agencies, and nonprofit entities created by law, such as NeighborWorks and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). [49] The Federal Audit Executive Council was created by the Council of Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency to aid in the discussion and coordination of issues affecting the federal audit community. [50] Is ACORN Intentionally Structured As a Criminal Enterprise? Staff Report, July 23, 2009, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. [51] Federal Funding to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) and Related Organizations, Congressional Research Service, November 4, 2009, Memorandum. [52] Review of the Department of Justice Grants to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now Inc. (ACORN) and its Affiliated Organizations, Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, November, 2009. [53] Senator Grassley's staff provided us with a list of ACORN and potentially related organizations. [54] The HUD Inspector General provided us with two lists of ACORN and potentially related organizations--one that it generated on its own and another that it obtained from a bank with which a number of these organizations held accounts. [55] FAR 4.607(a); 68 Fed. Reg. 38402. [56] D&B uses the term family tree to identify linkages between organizations, including a parent organization and its subsidiaries (a corporation whose capital stock is more than 50 percent owned by another corporation) and branches (a secondary location of its headquarters). Linkages are based on D&B's global database of entity information and D&B's proprietary linkage criteria, which included electronic and manual matching components for ACORN's family tree. According to D&B, linkage for nonprofit entities (which by definition do not issue capital stock) is not readily apparent; therefore, alternate methodologies were incorporated by D&B to establish family relationships. [57] D&B officials said that there were various reasons the additional 37 DUNS numbers were not included in the list they provided us, including potential duplicate information, updates that changed the information, and errors. We included the 37 DUNS numbers as part of the 313 DUNS sent to agencies. [58] DUNS numbers were not required for subawards, so matching was generally by organization name for subawards. [59] ACORN filed for chapter 7 bankruptcy on November 2, 2010. In re ACORN, No. 10-50380 (Bankr. E.D.N.Y. Nov. 2, 2010).The bankruptcy filing contained a list of prior addresses for the debtor (ACORN) including the name used for the organization at various locations. The ACORN family tree included two subsidiaries, Wal-Mart Worker's Association, Inc., and Wal-Mart Alliance for Reform Now, Inc.; we did not include these two organizations as part of ACORN but included them in our list of potentially related organizations because our mandate directed us to review funds received by ACORN, or any subsidiary or affiliate or subsidiary of ACORN [60] EINs provide unique tax identification for recording or tracking tax activities. [61] A DUNS number is a unique identifier for an entity, and is associated with information that can then be compared to the ACORN organizations. [62] The Recovery Act Accountability and Transparency Board (Board) was created by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to coordinate and conduct oversight of Recovery Act funds to prevent fraud, waste, and abuse. Pub. L. No. 111-5, 1521, 123 Stat. 115, 289. Board officials used various databases--including Central Contractor Registration (CCR), Excluded Parties List System (EPLS), and the Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS)--which they were able to search simultaneously to access information pertinent to our indicator analysis. Guidestar's database of 1.8 million IRS-recognized organizations includes information such as the IRS Letter of Determination, Form 990s (annual form exempt organizations must file with the IRS each year regarding assets, officers, and other information) financial statements, and annual reports. D&B Duns Market Identifiers (Global) on LEXIS-NEXIS is a global offering of Dun & Bradstreet's Market Identifier documents that includes U.S. and non- U.S. records, as well as public and private companies in over 220 countries. Information includes: company name, address, DUNS and phone numbers. [63] The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (FFATA), among other things, required the OMB to establish, no later than January 1, 2008, a publicly accessible Web site containing data on direct federal awards. OMB was to include data on subawards in the accessible Website by January 2009 Pub. L. No. 109-282, 2(d), 120 Stat. 1186, 1188. OMB issued a memorandum to agencies directing agencies to initiate subaward reporting on October 1, 2010 through USASpending.gov, pursuant to FFATA. [64] Agencies provided a DUNS number for two of these four organizations: we had address, phone number, executive, EIN, and bank account information for one organization; address, phone number, and executive information for the second organization; and neither the agency nor the primary grantee could provide a DUNS number or other indicator information for the third or fourth organization. [65] Our analysis of organizations potentially related to ACORN that were funded fiscal years 2005 through 2009 included the ACORN Housing Corporation, which shared executives and addresses in common with ACORN during that period. ACORN Housing Corporation formally changed its name to Affordable Housing Centers of America (AHCOA) in December 2009. HUD determined that for purposes of its 2010 agency‘s appropriations restrictions that ACHOA was not a subsidiary, affiliate, or allied organization of ACORN, and a GAO appropriations decision concluded that as of September 2010, ACHOA was not a subsidiary, affiliate, or allied organization of ACORN for purposes of NeighborWorks‘ appropriations restrictions. B-320329, Sept. 29, 2010. Our indicator analysis is for organizations funded in fiscal years 2005 through 2009 only and not for purposes of determining whether an organization falls within the scope of any appropriations restriction. [66] We did not include 11 investigations reported by the U.S. Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA). TIGTA officials stated that they could not provide us indicator information for these organizations because 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code precludes them from providing such data. We excluded five cases identified by Executive Office for United States Attorneys (EOUSA) and one investigation identified by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) because the address, phone number, and executive information provided by EOUSA and the address provided by FBI did not match the indicator information for ACORN. For the organizations involved in the remaining five investigations, we had address and executive information for one, address information for three, and executive information for one, none of which matched indicators for ACORN. [67] For the purposes of this report, we use the term federal "agency" to encompass federal entities that include selected federal executive departments, independent agencies, and nonprofit entities created by law such as the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and NeighborWorks. [68] The audit reports from the six agencies' Inspectors General and internal audit unit consist of: Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Office of Inspector General, Examination of Agape Broadcasting Foundation, Inc., Licensee of KNON-FM, Dallas, Texas for Selected Grant Periods and Fiscal Year 2008 (Washington, D.C., 2010); Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Office of Inspector General, Examination of Arkansas Broadcasting Foundation, Inc., Licensee of KABF-FM, Little Rock, Arkansas for Fiscal Year 2007 (Washington, D.C., 2010); Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, DHS Financial Assistance to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) and Its Affiliates (Washington, D.C., 2010); Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Inspector General for Audit, ACORN Associates, Inc., New Orleans, LA, Materially Failed to Use Its Lead Elimination Action Program Grant Funds Appropriately (Washington, D.C., 2010); Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Inspector General for Investigation, Inspection, and Evaluations Division, ACORN Housing Corporation, Inc., Evaluation of HUD Housing Counseling Grant Expenditures (Washington, D.C., 2010); Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Review of Department of Justice Grants to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, Inc. (ACORN) and its Affiliated Organizations (Washington, D.C., 2009); U.S. Election Assistance Commission, Office of Inspector General, Administration of Grant Funds Received Under the Help America Vote College Program by Project Vote (Washington, D.C., 2010); and NeighborWorks, Office of Internal Audit, Special Audit on the Use of National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program Grant Funds by ACORN Housing Corporation, Inc. (Washington, D.C., 2010). The inspectors general for the remaining 7agencies that provided direct funding to ACORN or potentially related organizations did not conduct evaluations of these organizations. [69] The DOJ litigating divisions we queried included Civil, Environment and Natural Resources, Antitrust, Civil Rights, Criminal, Tax, National Security, and EOUSA. The default rule is that DOJ is responsible for all litigation on behalf of the United States and its administrative agencies; accordingly, in general, agencies must refer investigations to DOJ for prosecution. 28 U.S.C. 516, 519; 5 U.S.C. 3106. However, there are certain exceptions where agencies have civil litigation authority; for example, the Federal Election Commission has the authority to bring enforcement actions for violations of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, as amended. 2 U.S.C. 437c, 437d. [70] FEC searched a list of 12 organizations included on a congressional request, nine of which appeared on the list of DUNS numbers we sent to agencies. Based on guidance from FEC, we searched the remaining entities on their Enforcement Query System, which is FEC's publicly available case management system. [71] The IG for the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) responded for its agency and for the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), as it is responsible for both agencies. [72] EOUSA provides administrative and operational support to the USAOs, among other things. [73] The term "case" refers to an investigation that has resulted in the filing of some legal action in court such as an activity that has been assigned an identification number that has resulted in the filing of a complaint, an indictment, or information in court. The terms "matter" or "investigation" are used to identify investigations which are activities that have been assigned identification numbers, but which, for a variety of reasons--e.g., lack of sufficient evidence-- have been closed without resulting in the filing of a complaint, an indictment, or information in court--for example, the investigation of a complaint or an allegation of discrimination referred by another federal agency. The agencies did not provide information on "open" investigations... [74] 31 U.S.C. 3512(c), commonly referred to as the Federal Managers' Financial Integrity Act of 1982. Agencies' systems of internal control must be consistent with the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 1999). [75] See GAO, Principles of Federal Appropriations Law, vol. 1, 3rd ed., [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-04-261SP] (Washington, D.C.: January 2004), 1-35. "Every federal department or agency has the initial and fundamental responsibility to ensure that its application of public funds adheres to the terms of the pertinent authorization and appropriation acts, as well as any other relevant statutory provisions." [76] For the purpose of this report, direct awards (awards made by the agency directly to an award-requesting recipient) include direct grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts. [77] Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-68, Div. B, 163, 123 Stat. 2043, 2053 (2009); Further Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-88, Div. B, 101, 123 Stat. 2904, 2972 (2009). [78] OMB M-10-02. [79] Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-88, Div. A, 427, 123 Stat. 2904, 2962 (2009) (prohibiting funds made available under the act from being distributed to ACORN or its subsidiaries); Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Div. A, 418, 123 Stat. 3034, 3112 (2009) (prohibiting funds made available under Division A--the Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010--as well as prior acts, from being provided to ACORN, or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, or allied organizations); Div. B, 534, 123 Stat. at 3157 (prohibiting funds made available under Division B-- the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010--from being distributed to ACORN or its subsidiaries); Div. E, 511, 123 Stat. at 3311 (prohibiting funds made available under Division E--the Military Construction and Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010--as well as any other division of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, from being distributed to ACORN or any of its subsidiaries); Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-118, 8123, 123 Stat. 3409, 3458 (2009) (prohibiting funds made available under the act from being distributed to ACORN or its subsidiaries). [80] Plaintiffs claimed that the restrictions constituted a bill of attainder and violated the First Amendment and due process. [81] ACORN v. United States, 662 F. Supp. 2d 285 (E.D.N.Y. 2009). [82] ACORN v. United States, 692 F.Supp.2d 260 (E.D.N.Y. 2010). [83] OMB M-10-12. [84] ACORN v. United States, Nos. 09-5172, 10-992, slip op. (2nd Cir. Apr. 21, 2010). The Second Circuit granted an administrative stay on April 2, 2010, and a stay pending appeal on April 21, 2010. [85] ACORN v. United States, 618 F.3d 125 (2nd Cir. 2010). Plaintiffs subsequently filed for re hearing en banc, which was denied on November 23, 2010. On February 22, 2011, plaintiffs filed a petition for writ of certiorari seeking to have their case heard by the Supreme Court, and on May 9, 2011, the District Court stayed the proceedings until the Supreme Court has ruled on plaintiffs' petition. [86] The restrictions contained in the fiscal year 2010 annual appropriations acts continue to be in effect for fiscal year 2011 under the terms of the continuing resolutions enacted. Pub. L. No. 111-242, 101, 124 Stat. 2607 (2010). Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, Pub. L. No. 112-10, Div. B, 1101, 1105. However, as of April 15, 2011, when DOD's fiscal year 2011 appropriations bill became law, DOD is not subject to an ACORN-related appropriations restriction. See id. at div. A. [End of section] GAO's Mission: The Government Accountability Office, the audit, evaluation and investigative arm of Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional responsibilities and to help improve the performance and accountability of the federal government for the American people. GAO examines the use of public funds; evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses, recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO's commitment to good government is reflected in its core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability. Obtaining Copies of GAO Reports and Testimony: The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no cost is through GAO's Web site [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov]. 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